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A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF 

TROPICAL MONTANE 

CLOUD FORESTS 



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DRAFT 
AUGUST 1997 



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WORLD CONSERVATION 
MONITORING CENTRE 



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The World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 

provides information services on the conservation and 

sustainable use of species and ecosystems and supports 

others in the development of their own 

information systems. 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD 

FORESTS 



DRAFT 



by Mark Aldrich, Clare Billington, Mary Edwards and Ruth Laidlaw 



World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge, UK. 
August 1997 



lUCN 

The World Conservation Union 



Netherlands Committee 



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WORLD CONSERVATION 
MONITORING CENTRE 



Acknowledgements 

Grateful appreciation is expressed to a number of people who have contributed to the 
compilation and production of this directory. To Heather Cross for her great efforts in 
editing, reviewing and production, and to James Culverwell and Sam Kanyamibwa 
(Africa), Ruth Laidlaw (Central America and South-East Asia), Miguel Morales (Mexico) 
and Chris Sharpe (Venezuela) for their help in writing and researching. Also to Tim 
Quinton for his work on the database and Mary Edwards for map production. Finally to 
Clare Billington, Willem Ferwerda, Larry Hamilton and Richard Luxmoore for their advice 
and encouragement along the way. 

Many thanks are also due to those who commented on a draft layout for the database and on 
types of information to be collected, as well as giving advice and guidance during this phase of 
work. They include Sampumo Bruinzeel, Rainer Bussmann. Charles Doumenge, Willem 
Ferwerda, Don Gilmour, Larry Hamilton, Mark Jeffcote, Jim Juvik, Maarten Kappelle. Mariella 
Leo, Adrian Long, Chris Sharpe, Fred Scatena, Ed Tanner. Paul Toyne, Peter Weaver, Tim 
Whitmore, Jan Wolf, and many colleagues here at WCMC. 

In addition thanks to all the cloud forest enthusiasts around the world who have contributed 
information and expressed an interest in working with WCMC in raising awareness of the value 
of remaining cloud forests. Many are listed along with their contact details as an annexe to this 
directory. Apologies to any that have been missed. 

We trust that this draft directory and the database from which it has been compiled provide a 
valuable resource. We also hope to build on this and the rapidly developing network of contacts 
in a subsequent phase of work, which will contribute towards the conservation of the remaining 
areas of this unique and fragile ecosystem. 



The World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC). based in Cambridge. UK is a 
joint-venture between the three partners in the World Consen'ation Strategy and its successor 
Caring For The Earth: lUCN - The World Conservation Union. UNEP - United Nations 
Environment Programme, and WWF - World Wide Fund for Nature. WCMC provides information 
services on conservation and sustainable use the world's living resources, and helps others to 
develop information systems of their own. 

Prepared by Mark Aldrich, Clare Billington, Mary Edwards and Ruth Laidlaw with funding from 
lUCN Netherlands Committee. 



lUCN 

The World Conservation Union 



Netherlands CommiUee 



sB 



WORLD CONSERVATION 
MONITORING CENTRE 



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Copyright release: 



World Conservation Monitoring Centre 1997 

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prior written permission of the copyright holders. 

The designations of geographical entities and the presentation of 
material in this report do not imply the expression of any opinion 
whatsoever by WCMC and its collaborators and other 
participating organisations, concerning the legal or constitutional 
status of any country, territory, or area or of its authorities; or 
concerning the delineation of its frontiers or boundaries. 



Citation: 



World Conservation Monitoring Centre 1997. A Global Directory 
of Tropical Montane Cloud Forests (Draft). Aldrich, M., 
Billington, C, Edwards, M. and Laidlaw, R (Eds). 
World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge, UK. 
Unpublished. 268pp. 



Available From: 



World Conservation Monitoring Centre 

219 Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 ODL, UK 

Tel: +44 1223 277314; Fax: -H44 1223 277136 

Email: info@wcmc.org.uk; URL: http://www.wcmc.org.uk 

FTP: ftp://ftp.wcmc.org.uk 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD 

FORESTS 



CONTENTS 

Introduction and Background to the Development of this Directory Page No. 

1. An Introduction to Tropical Montane Cloud Forests i 

1 . 1 Values 

1.2 Threats/Pressures 

1.3 The need for information 

1 .4 Related activities 

2. Deflnitions and Terminology iii 

2.1 Difficulties with definition 
2.1.1 Working definitions 

2.2 Commonly used Terminology 

3. Distribution of TMCFs vi 

3.1 Global distribution 

3.2 Altitude, latitude and the Massenerhebung effect 

3.3 Altitudinal distribution 

3.4 Mapping 

4. Background to the development of a global database ix 

5. Development of a standardised methodology and format for recording data x 

6. Data gathering exercise: problems x 

7. Compilation of a draft directory xi 

8. Development of a Cloud Forest Network xi 

9. Global Overview xii 

Including tables showing total number of regions and sites per country, 

with the number of sites protected - 

Table 1 : South-East Asia xiii 

Table 2: Africa xiv 

Table 3a: Central America xv 

Table 3b: South America xv 

Table 4: Global Totals xvi 

10. Conclusions xvii 

11. Proposed future activities xviii 

12. References xix 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2010 with funding from 
UNEP-WCIVIC, Cambridge 



http://www.archive.org/details/globaldirectoryo97aldr 



The Directory 

Legend to the maps 
1. AFRICA : 



Angola 1 

Burundi 5 

Cameroon 9 

Cote d'lvoire 14 

Equatorial Guinea 18 

Ethiopia 22 

Gabon 26 

Guinea 32 

Kenya 36 

Liberia 45 

Madagascar 49 

Malawi 53 

Mozambique 57 

Nigeria 61 

Reunion 65 

Rwanda 69 

Sao Tome and Principe 75 

Sierra Leone 79 

Tanzania 83 

Uganda 90 

Zaire 96 



LATIN AMERICA - CENTRAL 



Belize 107 

Costa Rica 1 1 1 

El Salvador 117 

Guatemala 121 

Mexico 126 

Panama I35 



2.1 LATIN AMERICA - SOUTH 



Bolivia I43 

Brazil 149 

Colombia I54 

Ecuador 162 

Peru 170 

Venezuela 177 



SOUTH-EAST ASIA 



Australia 193 

Brunei Darussalam 197 

Cambodia 201 

China 205 

India 209 

Indonesia 213 

LaoPDR 223 

Malaysia 224 

Myanmar 233 

Papua New Guinea 237 

Philippines 241 

Sri Lanka 249 

Thailand 254 

Viet Nam 258 



4. Work currently in progress on the following: 

Argentina 
Honduras 
Nicaragua 

Caribbean Islands 
Pacific Islands 

Appendix 1: Example Site Sheets 



INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THIS 

DIRECTORY 



AN INTRODUCTION TO TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Tropical montane cloud forests (TMCFs) are high on the list of the world's most threatened 
ecosystems, and it is widely believed that the majority of those which remain are small areas 
or remnant fragments of their original extent. Much of their value is related to their unique 
characteristics of biodiversity and endemism and the functions that they provide. If managed 
sustainably, TMCFs can provide a valuable range of services to local populations living in or 
adjacent to the forest. As well as being a source of fuelwood and small dimension timber, 
they may provide a range of non-wood forest products including honey, medicinal plants and 
bushmeat. 

1.1 Values 

The hydrological role of TMCFs through their water stripping function gives them a value in 
terms of water resources that is quite distinct from other forests or types of land use 
(Stadtmuller, 1987, quoted in Hamilton et al. 1993). Tree crowns act to intercept wind- 
driven cloud moismre on leaves and branches which drips to the ground, resulting in the 
addition of water to the hydrological system. As a result TMCFs play an important role in 
watershed protection by maintaining ground cover, thus minimising soil erosion and 
providing a regular and controlled supply of water to communities living downstream. 

TMCFs also make excellent ecosystems and sites for monitoring climate change and air 
quality due to their relatively undisturbed tropical location. 

In addition to having a wealth of biological diversity which has been previously undervalued, 
TMCFs possess a very high proportion of endemic species, and probably many more as yet 
unknown to science. Many TMCF areas serve as refugia for endangered species which are 
being marginalised by the transformation and/or destruction of ecosystems at lower 
elevations. Throughout the tropics, the TMCF zone provides habitat for notable plant species 
such as tree ferns {Cyatheaceae) and many rare and endemic orchids (Orchidaceae) along 
with other economically valuable plants and tree species. TMCFs are also the last remaining 
habitat for many threatened species of mammals and birds. According to Long (1993), 260 
of the world's nationally endemic bird species have cloud forest habitats. 

With this wealth of diversity, cloud forest areas are becoming an increasingly important draw 
for ecotourism, such as bird watching holidays, and for local education and recreation. 
However while such activities may provide a valuable source of income, they must be 
carefiilly managed in order to help conserve the unique environment and benefit local 
communities. 



1.2 Threats/Pressures 

Despite their considerable value, these fragile habitats are under increasing threat from a wide 
range of sources. In particular, human population pressures have forced the conversion of 
more marginal and previously less accessible areas for both subsistence and cash crops, 
including legal or illegal drug plant production. Many areas are under pressure from 
encroachment by livestock or have already been cleared to provide new grazing land 
TMCFs may also provide a valuable source of fuelwood and small dimension timber, along 
with a range of non-wood forest products, but in many areas such exploitation has reached 
unsustainable levels resulting in irreversible damage to the forest habitat. The same is true 
for hunting or capture of fauna (for sport, subsistence or commercial trade), and tourism and 
recreation. Plans for new road building projects threaten many remaining TMCFs, along 
with mining and geothermal development schemes many of which are well established. 

1.3 The need for information 

The situation is critical - James Luteyn, a botanist with the New York Botanic Garden states 
that "some 90% of mountain forests have disappeared from the northern Andes", whilst 
attention has been focused on the plight of tropical rain forests of the Amazonian basin 
(Wuetrich, 1993). Immediate action is required to achieve their conservation before any more 
of these rare and valuable habitats are lost for good. 

To date, at the global level, relatively little is known about the whereabouts, extent and 
condition of the remaining areas of TMCF. In particular, detail is required on the protection 
status, biological importance, socio-economic conditions and current threats on a site by site 
basis. Although in some cases detailed information exists for specific sites, it is widely 
scattered and often not generally available. At a local level, experience from a number of 
lUCN conservation projects in montane forest areas suggests that the major constraint to 
cloud forest conservation is lack of awareness and commitment of all the participants and 
interest groups to the long-term conservation of these forests. 

1.4 Related activities 

In response to these issues, a Tropical Montane Cloud Forests International State-of- 
knowledge Symposium and Workshop was held in Puerto Rico in June 1993, with the aim of 
drawing together information on the global extent of TMCFs. In response to a lack of detailed 
global or national maps, the participants produced regional maps showing genera! 
concentrations of TMCF, along with a list of sites by region and country, and a series of 
recommendations concerning general and specific research needs (see Sections 3.4 and 4, 
below). 

Later the same month, another symposium, Neotropical Montane Forests: Biodiversity and 
Conservation, also concerned with the threat to montane cloud forests was held at the New 
York Botanical Garden. Participants, which included 120 scientists, 60 of them Latin 
American, discussed potential conservation efforts. These included the need for biological 
inventories to determine the most threatened areas, ecological restoration and in-situ and ex- 
situ conservation. In particular, the importance of international co-operation was stressed 



In 1995, lUCN - The World Conservation Union published a booklet in their Focus Series 
entitled A Campaign for Cloud Forests: unique and valuable ecosystems at risk. Written b}' 
Dr. Lawrence Hamilton (co-organiser of the Puerto Rico Symposium and Vice-Chair for 
Mountains in the World Commision for Protected Areas (WCPA)) it was an attempt to 
promote a better understanding of TMCFs among a clientele of lUCN members, panners, 
donors and a wider audience. In addition to highlighting the need for awareness raising both 
at national and international level of the value of cloud forests, an number of further actions 
required for their conservation were identified. 

Dr. Hamilton is also Editor of Mountain Protected Areas Update, the newsletter of the 
WCPA Mountains Programme. Produced bi-monthly it often includes reports on initiatives 
in cloud forest areas, and has information on forthcoming meetings, activities of members and 
reviews of publications. 



2. DEFINITIONS AND TERMINOLOGY 

2.1 Difficulties with Definition 

Hamilton et al. (1993) acknowledge that "clear definition of tropical montane cloud forest is 
fraught with difficulty". Despite having a number of key recognisable features, these vary 
greatly from one area to another, and this combined with an enormous range in the 
terminology used to identify TMCFs, leads to considerable confusion, as confirmed by a 
number of other authors of cloud forest studies such as Stadmuller and Ohsawa. 

At the Puerto Rico Symposium the participants recognised the need for a clear definition of 
TMCF (qualified as it might be), and discussed a number of alternatives. As a result, a 
synthesis working definition was developed - this is reproduced along with the thoughts of 
some other authors in Section 2.1.1 (below). It was decided to use this working definition as a 
guide for the purposes of the current project (see Section 4. for Background), rather than 
attempt to develop it any ftirther. In deciding which TMCF sites or areas to include several 
characteristics served as valuable indicators. In summary these were as follows: 

• A distinctive floristic and structural form, trees often described as having low stature 
and crooked and gnarled trunks and branches. Certain tree species appeared to be 
good indicators, as was a high proportion of epiphytes. High floral and faunal 
biodiversity and endemism. 

• Climatic features: persistent, frequent or seasonal cloud cover at the vegetation level. 
Relatively high net precipitation enhanced through direct canopy interception of cloud 
water (cloud stripping). 

• Typically occurring in a relatively narrow altitudinal zone. However, considerable 
variation in its position between large island mountain systems, and coastal areas or on 
small islands in marine, equatorial conditions. 



HI 



As mentioned earlier a wide range of terminology is used to describe cloud forests (see 
Section 2.2). Regional differences are apparent particularly with the term "cloud forest" 
itself. For example when searching the literature as part of this project, the term "cloud 
forest" or its Spanish equivalents were commonly used in association with montane forests in 
South and Central America, but not with those in Asia, Africa, Caribbean Islands or in the 
Oceania/Pacific region. This made the data gathering exercise considerably more difficult 
and time consuming for these regions. 

In Asia it appeared that cloud forest best equated to the more commonly described upper 
montane rainforests. This is confirmed by Ohsawa (1993) who reports that "botanists have 
observed that cloud forests on the tropical mountains of South-East Asia roughly correspond 
to the upper montane rainforests dominated by microphyllous trees" . Whitmore (1975) and 
Whitten (1984) also link the commonly used pseudonyms of cloud forest, elfm forest and 
moss forest with upper montane forest in South East Asia. 

When attempting to identify cloud forests in Africa, the relationship is less obvious. "Upper 
montane" is less commonly used, with the more general Afromontane being more common. 

In the Caribbean and Oceania/Pacific regions, cloud forests are coinmonly found in small 
patches on island mountains at a wide range of elevations. In many cases they are unique, 
highly endemic ecosystems and where documented are referred to as TMCFs. The mossy or 
elfm features of other areas are often identified, and due to a high elevational range they may 
be associated with either lower montane forests or as fades of upper montane forest (Merlin 
and Juvik, 1993). 

2.1.1 Working deflnitions 

Hamilton, Juvik, and Scatena (from Hamilton et al. (1993)): 

"The tropical montane cloud forest is composed afforest ecosystems of distinctive floristic and 
structural form. It typically occurs as a relatively narrow altitudinal zone where the 
atmospheric environment is characterised by persistent, frequent or seasonal cloud cover at 
the vegetation level. Enveloping clouds or wind-driven clouds influence the atmospheric 
interaction through reduced solar radiation and vapour deficit, canopy wetting, and general 
suppression of evapotranspiration. The net precipitation (throughfall) in such forests is 
significantly enhanced (beyond rainfall contribution) through direct canopy interception of 
cloud water (horizontal precipitation or cloud stripping) and low water use by the vegetation. 

In comparison with lower latitude tropical moist forest, the stand characteristics generally 
include reduced tree stature and increased stem density. Canopy trees usually exhibit gnarled 
trunks and branches; dense compact crowns; and small, thick and hard (sclerophyll) leaves. 
TMCF is also characterised by having a high proportion of biomass as epiphytes (bryophytes, 
lichens and filmy ferns) and a corresponding reduction in woody climbers. Soils are wet and 
frequently waterlogged and highly organic in the form of humus and peat (histosol). 
Biodiversity in terms of tree species of herbs, shrubs and epiphytes can be relatively high 
(considering the small areal extent) when compared with tree species-rich lowland rain forest. 
Endemism is often very high. 

TMCF occurs on a global scale within a wide range of annual and seasonal rainfall regimes 
(ie 500-10,000 mm/year). There is also significant variation in the altitudinal position of this 
iv 



mountain vegetation belt. For large, inland mountain systetjis. TMCF may typically be found 
between 2000-3500m (Andes, Rwenzoris). whereas in coastal and insular mountains this zone 
may descend to 1000m (Hawai, 'i). Under exceptionally humid, marine, equatorial 
conditions, a TMCF zone may develop on steep, small island mountains at elevations as low 
as 500m or even lower (Kosrae in Micronesia and Gau in Fiji) . " 

Stadtmuller, T. (1987): 

"Cloud forest" is neither a scientific term, nor does it serve as a definition within the 
disciplines of meteorology, hydrology, geography and biogeography, floristic composition, 
fauna, ecology, silviculture and conservation, and for this reason there may be confusion. 
Nevertheless "cloud forest" is frequently used in scientific literature which recognises the 
strong influence clouds and mist have on forest vegetation, its ecological properties and 
characteristics. 

For the purposes of this smdy the following definition of "cloud forest in the humid tropics" 
is used; 

Cloud forests include all forests in the humid tropics that are frequently covered in clouds or 
mist; thus receiving additional humidity, other than rainfall, through the capture and/or 
condensation of water droplets (horizontal precipitation), which influences the hydrological 
regime, radiation balance, and several climatic, edaphic and ecological parameters. 

Ohsawa, M. (from Hamilton et al. 1993): 

Definition and Distribution of Tropical Montane Cloud Forest in Southeast Asia 

"The characteristic features of TMCF include a thick coat of bryophytes (Frahm and 
Gradstein 1991) and vascular epiphytes such as filmy ferns, bromeliads, crassuraceans, 
gingibers, orchids, and ericaceous shrubs. The trees are more or less stunted and gnarled, 
and canopy surfaces are relatively smooth (Leigh 1975; Stadtmiiller 1987). However, in 
humid climates such as in Southeast Asia, the TMCF cannot easily be identified solely by such 
physiognomic or structural features, because the surrounding upland forests are also 
relatively humid from heavy precipitation throughout the year (Whitmore 1984). The "true" 
cloud forest, which is mainly sustained by cloud humidity, is easily recognisable when 
surrounded by totally different arid areas such as savanna or desert. This type of cloud forest 
can be clearly distinguished from the surrounding dry area because its altitudinal position 
results in significant moisture augmentation form fog and cloud. This situation is sometimes 
referred to as an isolated cloud forest (Sugden 1982) or an additional oasis (Cloudsley- 
Thompson, 1977). Such montane cloud forest often forms a narrow belt with an upper and 
lower treeline, and in most cases is confined to a windward exposure. " 



2.2 Commonly used Terminology 

The participants in the Puerto Rico Symposium offered a diverse Hst of local or professionally 
accepted names for TMCF in seven languages. 

These included mossy forest, elfin forest, montane thicket, dwarf cloud forest, nuboselva, 
bosque montano nebuloso, selva neblina, bosque nuboso, bosque de ceja. selva sublada. 
nebelwald, wolkenwald, foret nepheliphile, foret de nuage, unmu-rin, bosque anao. foresta 
nebular, mata nebular, matinha nebular, floresta fe neblina, floresta nuvigena, mata de 
neblina, matinha de altitude, floresta ombrofila densa montana e/ou alto-montana. floresta de 
altimde, floresta nublada, and floresta pluvial montana e/ou alto montana. 

In addition a number of other commonly used names are listed by Stadtmiiller, T. (1987). 

Spanish Terminology 

"The term "bosque nublado " is the most frequent and general denomination in Spanish to 
describe forest under the strong influence of clouds (Lamprecht, 1954). Veil Ion (1974) uses 
the term "selva nublada " which he considers equivalent to the "bosque muy humedo montano 
bajo" according to Holdridge's classification. Other authors, e.g. Cdceres (1981) mention 
cloud forests in the "bosque muy humedo premontano " life zone. " 

English Terminology 

" "Cloud forest " is the most common term used worldwide to describe forest types under the 
influence of clouds. However, considerable numbers of authors have created other terms to 
describe such forests. The majority of these terms are those included in tropical vegetation 
classification systems e.g. Montane rainforest. " 

German Terminology 

"The most frequently used term in German literature to describe cloud forest is the term 
"Nebelwald". The term "Nebelwald" signifies fog forest. In recent years the majority of 
authors use the term "Wolkenwald" in order the represent the translation of the most widely 
used term at the international level, "cloud forest ", more accurately. Another German term 
synonymous with cloud forest is "Gebirgs-Nebelwald" which means mountain cloud forest". 



3. DISTRIBUTION OF TMCFs 

3.1 Global Distribution 

Prior to the Puerto Rico Symposium, the limited knowledge of the global distribution of 
TMCFs was based on the available information on the geographical distribution of montane 
and submontane forests. This suggested that they are potentially found on all the major 
mountain chains in tropical regions, where topo-climate conditions are favourable to the 
occurrence of ground-level clouds during a considerable period of the year. As a result, 
TMCFs tend to occur more frequently in Tropical America and Southeast Asia than in 
tropical Africa due to a wider distribution of mountain ranges subject to oceanic differences in 
vi 



these areas (Doumenge et al. 1993). Persson (1974, in Hamilton el al. 1993)) estimated that 
TMCF constituted one-quarter of montane and submontane rain forest (c.50 million ha) 
although this was probably an over-estimate. 

3.2 Altitude, latitude and the Massenerhebung effect 

Localised variations in the extent and elevational limits of TMCF are found as a result of 
changes in the relationship between altitude and temperature. In tropica! areas the cloudiness 
and high water vapour content of the atmosphere significantly reduces the amount of solar 
radiation received by the forest canopy compared with drier tropical environments. 
Furthermore whereas in general temperature declines with increasing altimde. there are 
marked differences above and below the condensation level which is marked by the cloud 
base. Below this level the rate of decline of temperamre is relatively high, whereas above the 
cloud base rates of change in the saturated air tend to be much slower (Richards, 1966). 
These effects combined with the direction of prevailing winds may lead to striking differences 
between vegetation types on either side of the same mountain range (Kappelle and Zamora, 
1995), (Lawton and Dryer, 1980) . A good example is in Costa Rica where the mean 
temperamre on the Continental Divide of mountains running down the centre of the country is 
commonly 2°C higher on the Pacific side than on the wetter Atlantic (or Caribbean side). 
Here the North-East trade winds (from the Atlantic) are also a prominent feamre of the 
climate at higher elevations throughout the year. Forest on the windward side has a lower 
and more open canopy, and trees have significantly thicker trunk diameters than on the 
leeward side. Species composition is also affected by a more open canopy where shade 
intolerant species are prominent, and there is a thicker shrub layer. Density of bryophytic 
and vascular epiphytes also increases with exposure to prevailing winds due to the rising 
frequency of cloud in the forest (Lawton and Dryer, 1980). 

In addition larger mountain masses tend to be warmer at comparable altimdes than isolated 
mountains, as large upland surfaces provide extensive areas for heating by solar radiation, a 
process which increases significantly with higher altitudes. This phenomenon has been 
termed the Massenerhebung effect. In the humid tropics this means that lowland rain forest is 
replaced by montane forest at a higher elevation in large mountain ranges such as the Andes. 
This is compared with isolated mountains, particularly near the coast, where the zones are 
more compressed (Richards, 1966). 

3.3 Aititudinal Distribution 

In general there is a transition in forest type with increasing altitude, moving from lowland 
moist forest through lower montane, upper montane and alpine forest before reaching alpine 
shrub or grassland vegetation (commonly referred to as "paramo") above the treeline. As 
mentioned earlier TMCF is generally found within the upper montane belt, although there is 
huge altimdinal variation (see diagram below). Depending on latitude, the lower limit of 
TMCF on large inland mountain systems is typically between 1,500 and 2,500 metres above 
sea level (m), with the upper limit between 2,400 and 3,300m (Bruijnzeel and Proctor, 1993). 



vn 



Forest Formation 



Florrstrc zone 




Hill 
dipteiocarp 



Lowland 
dipterocarp 



Important groups* 

Coniferae 
Ericaceae 
Myrtaceae 



Fagaceae. Lauraceae 

Shoita platyclados.S ciliata. 
S.ovata. Dipterocarpus retusus 

As below + 
Shorea cuilisii 

Numerouj drptemcarps eipeaally Dipteiocaipus 
spp.. Shorea spp and Dryoialanops aromatica 



Vegetation zones on the main mountains of Malaya (from Whitmore, T C 1984) 

In addition to this general distribution, TMCF may occur as micro-occurrences where there is 
a cooler climate and stronger influence of mists and clouds than might normally be expected. 
Examples in Africa include the isolated low elevation Belinga mountains of Gabon (800- 
900m), and the Angola Highlands where there is an extension of dense forests from Southern 
Zaire (Doumenge et al. 1993). 

In the Caribbean and Oceania/Pacific regions, the cloud forests are commonly found at 
relatively low elevations (500m or lower) on small island mountains. In the Pacific TMCF 
typically occur as small and isolated patches on high volcanic mountains. In Oceania and the 
Caribbean, the TMCF belt occurs at higher elevations on larger islands, and at much lower 
elevations close to the equator. 

3.4 Mapping 

In preparation for the Puerto Rico Symposium, Doumenge et al. (1993), with the help of 
WCMC attempted a global map of TMCF distribution based on the larger categories of 
montane and submontane tropical rain forests. More detailed, larger scale regional maps 
were also provided for the participants to review. 



vni 



4. BACKGROUND TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF A GLOBAL DATABASE 

In addition to producing regional maps showing general concentrations of TMCF. and a list 
of sites by region and country, participants in Puerto Rico made a series of recommendations 
concerning general and specific research needs. These maps and site list, which name and 
locate individual cloud forests, protected areas, and known remaining undisturbed areas, were 
thought useful in that they were collected as a starting point. However the Proceedings 
stated- "we hope that this will be the start of a more complete location map for these 
ecosystems" - and the data collected was sent to WCMC "who will maintain and improve the 
data set" (Hamilton et al. 1993). Readers were asked to send information about other cloud 
forest sites to WCMC. 

Amongst the research needs identified, participants felt it necessary to raise the profile of 
TMCFs at the international scale. Again the lack of detailed and available information on 
TMCF areas was highlighted. In response they recommended that relevant information is 
collected and analysed in a co-ordinated way in order to improve understanding of these 
ecosystems, and ensure that reliable information is made available to a range of users for 
effective decision making. It is generally felt that a systematic initiative was required to 
gather, process, store and disseminate this information. 

It was recommended that this should include the development of a standardised methodology 
and format for collecting information, through a worldwide inventory of TMCFs, with 
textual, numerical and spatial data stored on a centralised database at the World Conservation 
Monitoring Centre. 

In addition it was also recommended that at the local level, efforts at raising the awareness of 
local owners and users of land, along with politicians and agencies about the value of the 
resource they are impacting must underlie all direct actions taken to reduce the threats to 
TMCFs from human impacts . In addition, support must be given to local initiatives which 
involve interest groups in participatory planning and management. 

As a result a project proposal to develop a TMCF database was prepared at WCMC, which 
included an information gathering exercise through a range of contacts with a knowledge of 
cloud forests and/or experience in the management of cloud forest areas. The further 
development of a cloud forest contacts network was also proposed in order to provide a focal 
point for information exchange and allow those with an interest in the management and 
conservation of TMCFs to share their experience of existing conservation initiatives, to the 
benefit of future projects. 

Funding for a first phase of work was provided by the Government of the Netherlands 
through the Tropical Rainforest Programme of the lUCN Netherlands Committee. In order to 
publicise the project and identify willing contributors, information on the project was 
circulated widely through International forestry and conservation newsletters, meetings and 
other fora, as well as e-mail and on the WCMC Web page. These activities proved very 
successful in stimulating interest and identifying new contacts. 



IX 



5. DEVELOPMENT OF A STANDARDISED METHODOLOGY AND FORMAT 

FOR RECORDING DATA 

Following a review of the types of information available containing descriptions of TMCF 
sites, including material held at WCMC, scientific papers, articles and books, a draft 
framework for recording data in a database was developed through consultation with a 
number of interested parties. A set of draft materials were then sent to a core group of 
contacts with experience and/or knowledge of cloud forest issues, for comment. These 
materials included a proposed structure for recording both summary and more detailed 
information, along with a detailed national map designed to facilitate the addition of cloud 
forest sites. Having reviewed the range of responses from the core group, the database layout 
was designed. 

A new recording facility to store data on TMCFs was added to the existing Protected Areas 
database at WCMC. This includes the ability to link cloud forest sites to existing protected 
area records. Selected database fields were added and a new cloud forest category created. 
Based on the database layout, blank summary site data sheets were designed for collecting 
information which could later be added to the database. A sheet giving the proposed layout of 
more detailed information as an accompanying text description for each site was also 
prepared. 



6. DATA GATHERING EXERCISE: PROBLEMS 

The initial intention was to gather data on cloud forest sites, by enlisting the help of contacts 
with knowledge of cloud forests in a particular country or region. These contacts were either 
previously known to staff at WCMC or had responded to a plea for help when the project was 
being publicised. It was hoped that the data gathered would supplement the relatively limited 
information already held at WCMC. This exercise began with sets of materials being sent to 
more than 40 contacts in South and Central America. Each set included a country map, 
copies of the blank summary site sheets, and a photocopy of the synthesis working definition 
developed at the Puerto Rico Symposium, accompanied by a letter of explanation. Similar 
exercises were planned for Africa, South-East Asia and the Pacific/Oceania. 

In practice the results from this exercise were poor. It is likely that this was due to lack of 
time available for contacts to complete site sheets, despite efforts made to minimise the effort 
required. However, in a minority of cases, sets of completed site sheets were returned along 
with maps on which the location of cloud forest sites had been marked. This information was 
very useful and was entered in the database. 

As a result of the poor response to this initial widespread data gathering exercise and the 
relatively small number of contacts identified in other regions, it was decided to concentrate 
further efforts through correspondence only with those contacts who had expressed a 
willingness to help. In order to provide a useful product at the end of the first phase of the 
project it was also decided to combine the information received with material gathered from a 
comprehensive review of information available through research at WCMC. 

Data on a site by site basis was recorded where available. However the amount of detail was 
very variable between sites, so it was decided to group sites into sub-national regions (often 

X 



mountain ranges, islands or single, isolated mountain peaks). Descriptive information from 
the sites in a particular region was compiled into a summary paragraph for the region, which 
was entered into the database in a memo field. These paragraphs were then incorporated into 
country chapters for the draft directory . 



7. COMPILATION OF A DRAFT DIRECTORY 

Following an intensive period of research and compilation, a draft directory of TMCFs has 
been produced, for widespread distribution to all contributors and other identified contacts in 
hard copy form. In addition the material will be made available on the WCMC Internet Web 
Site. 

A global directory has been compiled, consisting of a global overview followed by a section 
on each of the major tropical regions, which contain a chapter on each country included. 
Each chapter begins with a national overview, map and summary table showing the main sub- 
national cloud forest regions and sites identified with latitude and longitude co-ordinates 
where available, along with an indication of which sites have an element of formal protection 
(this refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria). This is 
followed by summary paragraphs describing each of the sub-national regions in terms of 
location, biodiversity, conservation stams, and giving details of the values of the TMCF sites 
in the area and the pressures currently faced. 

As a result of the variable level of detail gathered to date at the site level, no further site 
information has been included in this first draft version of the directory. However detailed 
information is held in the database for some sites, and can be added for other sites as it 
becomes available. An example of the site sheet which has been used to gather information 
and shows the database fields which exist for recording the more detailed data, is included in 
Annex 1. 

8. DEVELOPMENT OF A CLOUD FOREST NETWORK 

In addition to the cloud forest contacts identified through the Puerto Rico Symposium and the 
other related activities described in Section 1.4, a significant number of new contacts, 
particularly researchers active in the field and local NGOs have been made during the first 
phase of this project. A full list of names by country with contact details is enclosed with this 
directory. It is hoped that this can be developed further into a contacts network, linked by an 
e-mail List-Server and Newsletter, in a subsequent phase of this project subject to funding 
being found. 



XI 



9. GLOBAL OVERVIEW 

The work to date has identified a total of 605 TMCF sites in 41 countries (see Tables 1.2.3 
and 4 below). These are marked on the following map which shows the distribution of 
montane cloud forest sites in the tropics. The highest concentration is found in Latin America, 
where 280 sites (46%) are found in only 12 countries, the majority in Venezuela. Me.xico. 
Ecuador and Colombia. This is perhaps not surprising due to the large and high mountainous 
areas of the Andes region which are subject to oceanic influences, but also it is indicative of 
the fact that the term "cloud forest" is more widely used and recognised than in the other 
continents. This is discussed in Section 2 of the Introduction, Definitions and Tenmnolog)-. 
In south-east Asia, 228 sites have been identified in 14 countries principally in Indonesia and 
Malaysia and to a lesser extent in Sri Lanka, Philippines and Papua New Guinea. In Africa, 
97 sites have been recorded in 21 countries, with many cloud forests found on relatively 
isolated mountains scattered across the continent. 

Details of the size of particular cloud forest sites have been difficult to obtain, except where 
the information has been supplied by local experts. In any case the actual extent of cloud 
forest itself as distinct from the surrounding or adjoining forest type is very difficult to 
determine, even on the ground. As a result the sites identified should generally be considered 
as areas of forest containing a proportion of cloud forest. 

An initial assessment of the values of cloud forests shows that the majority of areas are 
incredibly important habitats for endemic and other threatened species of flora and fauna, 
including many important tree species and plants such as tree ferns Cyatheaceae and orchids 
Orchidaceae . Large numbers of bird species and mammals such as the spectacled bear 
Tremarctos ornatus and howler monkies Alouatta spp. are dependent on cloud forest habitat 
for their survival. These forests have a high socio-economic value to local populations 
principally as a source of fuel wood, building materials and food amongst others, but also on a 
larger scale for watershed protection and climate regulation. At the same time, overcutting for 
fuelwood, clearance for agriculture, encroachment by grazing animals and the spread of fire 
from grass-burning of adjoining areas were identified as amongst the major localised threats 
to these fragile ecosystems and their inhabitants. Many areas are under pressure from mining 
companies and large-scale road building projects, often against the wishes of local people. 

Globally, from the information gathered, just under half the sites identified have an element of 
protection by being within protected areas classified as meeting lUCN Management Category 
I-VI criteria. Others may be under less formal protection such as private reserves or in 
collaborative forest management agreements, although this information is not available at this 
stage. In south-east Asia, 50% of sites identified are within lUCN protected areas, while 
Latin America has 44% (Central America has only 30%, while South America has 47%), and 
Africa has 39%. However, despite the fact that cloud forests in these areas are legally 
designated as "protected", in practice many are under pressure from the threats described 
above and are continuing to become more fragmented and in some areas completely lost at an 
alarming rate. 



XII 



± 



I Montane rain forssl 
Cloud rotesi sttes 






GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF CLOUD FOREST SITES 



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XVI 



10. CONCLUSIONS 

The production of this draft directory as the first output from the TMCF database at WCMC 
represents an important initial stage in the development of a standardised methodolog>' and 
format for collecting information on TMCFs on a site by site basis. It is hoped that WCMC 
can continue to provide a focal point for information exchange, through further data gathering 
and dissemination in a subsequent phase of work. 

Whilst the database provides the best available information on the location and status of 
TMCFs, considerable work is required to develop the level of detail on a site by site basis. As 
indicated in the global overview the current level of detail varies considerably depending on 
the types of information available, but more importantly on the level of input from those with 
a detailed knowledge of a particular area. In order to produce a more comprehensive 
information base, the collaboration of regional and national cloud forest contacts should be 
encouraged. Such a relationship must be mutually beneficial, and should be developed by 
expanding the existing number of contacts by activating a contact network and the facilitation 
of regional workshops attended by local experts from all sectors. In addition collaboration 
with related conservation initiatives such as the Mountains Programme of the lUCN-WCPA 
(World Commission on Protected Areas) must be sought. 

It is also important that the information available should be disseminated as widely as 
possible. In particular it should be made available to a range of users at the policy and 
decision making levels. This should be done by distribution of this directory in hard copy 
form and on the World Wide Web. In addition to making the information available and 
increasing awareness of the issues, it will also be possible to encourage readers to review the 
existing material, and provide feedback and more detailed information where possible. 

The current directory provides a useful overview of the location of cloud forest sites, with 
some general information on their importance for biodiversity, protection status, socio- 
economic and wider environmental values, and the some of the major threats to their survival. 
As the detail of the information improves it will be possible to develop more detailed analyses 
to determine the gaps in protection and priority areas for conservation using criteria 
developed at regional and national levels. This would also be assisted by the development of a 
number of selected local case studies looking at particular issues in more detail, perhaps in 
collaboration with existing field projects. In addition priority sites where further research or 
development work is urgently needed should be identified. 

A detailed funding proposal is currently being developed at WCMC for a subsequent phase of 
work, based on the conclusions above and the recommendations of a number of cloud forest 
experts from whom advice has been sought. The main activities are listed below. 



xvii 



11. PROPOSED FUTURE ACTIVITIES 

Phase II will aim to build on the existing information through the following activities. 

i. Workshops 

Following an initial management advisory workshop, to determine data, technology 
and information needs and set work priorities, a series of similar regional meetings 
will be held with regional and local experts. 

ii. Expand the information base: 

Expand on the information compiled under Phase I, to produce a more comprehensive 
coverage of site descriptions, to fill information gaps and to consolidate information 
on boundaries of cloud forests and protected cloud forests. 

iii. Function as a global focal point for cloud forest work 

Function as a focal point to facilitate information and expertise exchange, by 
activating the existing contacts network, and an e-mail discussion group. Also act as a 
repository for information collected under detailed local cloud forest case studies (to 
be funded independently), passing on knowledge to others. Enhance local scale 
projects by providing a global context for cloud forest conservation. 

iv. Establish Conservation Priorities 

Undertake analyses, in collaboration with the Mountains Programme of lUCN-WCPA 
and others, to determine gaps in cloud forest protection and to identify priorities for 
conservation planning. 

V. Distribute Data Effectively 

Improve the distribution of data via a number of different media such as CD-ROM, 
over the Internet and with the production of a Cloud Forest Handbook. 

vi. Assist in an awareness campaign on the threatened status of cloud forests 

Promote the importance of cloud forests to a wider audience by assisting in a 
campaign proposed by Dr. Larry Hamilton and lUCN-WCPA with support from 
Netherlands Committee for lUCN and WWF, by producing information papers, a 
colour poster and other material suitable for media coverage. 



For more information on Cloud Forests Phase II please contact Mark Aldrich at WCMC. 
Any suggestions for improvements to the database would be gratefully received. 



xvni 



12. REFERENCES 

Bruijnzeel, L.A. and J. Proctor (1993) Hydrology and Biogeochemistry of Tropical Montane 
Cloud Forests: What do we really know? In Hamilton et al. (1993) (Eds) Tropical 
Montane Cloud Forests - Proceedings of an International Symposium at San Juan, 
Puerto Rico, 31 May - 5 June 1994, East-West Center, Honolulu. Hawai'i, USA. 
Pages 25-46. 

Doumenge, C, D. Gilmour, M. Ruiz Perez, and J. Blockhus (1993). Tropical Montane 
Cloud Forests: Conservation Status and Management Issues. In Hamilton et al. 
(1993) (Eds) Tropical Montane Cloud Forests - Proceedings of an International 
Symposium at San Juan, Puerto Rico, 31 May - 5 June 1994, East-West Center, 
Honolulu, Hawai'i, USA. Pages 17-24. 

Hamilton, L., J.O. Juvik, and F. Scatena (1993). The Puerto Rico Tropical Cloud Forest 
Symposium: Introduction and Workshop Synthesis. In Hamilton et al. (1993) (Eds) 
Tropical Montane Cloud Forests - Proceedings of an International Symposium at San 
Juan, Puerto Rico, 31 May - 5 June 1994, East-West Center, Honolulu. Hawai'i, 
USA. Pages 1-16. 

Kappelle, M. and N. Zamora (1995). Changes in Woody Species Richness along an 
Altitudinal Gradient in Talamancan Montane Quercus Forests, Costa Rica. In Steven 
Churchill et al. (1995) (Eds) Biodiversity and Conservation of Neotropical Montane 
Forests, 135-148. New York Botanic Garden, USA. 

Lawton, R. and V. Dryer (1980). The Vegetation of the Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve. 
Brenesia 18: 101-116. 

Long. A.J (1993). Restricted-Range and Threatened Bird Species in Tropical Montane Cloud 
Forests. In Hamilton et al. (1993) (Eds) Tropical Montane Cloud Forests - 
Proceedings of an International Symposium at San Juan, Puerto Rico, 31 May - 5 June 
1994, East- West Center, Honolulu, Hawai'i, USA. Pages 47-65. 

Ohsawa, M. (1993). The Montane Cloud Forest and its Gradational Changes in Southeast 
Asia. In Hamilton et al. (1993) (Eds) Tropical Montane Cloud Forests - Proceedings 
of an International Symposium at San Juan, Puerto Rico, 31 May - 5 June 1994, East- 
West Center, Honolulu, Hawai'i, USA. Pages 163-170. 

Richards, P.W. (1966). The tropical rain forest. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 
UK. 

Stadtmuller, T. (1987). Cloud Forests in the Humid Tropics. A bibliographic review. 
United Nations University, Tokyo, and CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. 

Whitmore, T.C. (1984). Tropical rainforests of the Far East. 2nd Edition. Clarendon Press, 
Oxford. 



XIX 



Whitten. A.J.. Damanik. S.J., Anwar, J. and N, Hisyam (1984). The Ecology of Sumatra. 
Gadjah Mada University Press. 

Wuetrich, B. (1993). Forests in the clouds face stormy flimre. Science News 144(2):23. 



XX 



THE DIRECTORY 



Legend to the Maps 



LEGEND 

Adjacent countries 
1^ Montane rain forest 
/V 2000m contour 
^ Cloud forest region 
• Cloud forest sites 




PART ONE 

AFRICA 

Angola 

Burundi 

Cameroon 

Cote d'lvoire 

Equatorial Guinea 

Ethiopia 

Gabon 

Guinea 

Kenya 

Liberia 

Madagascar 

Malawi 

Mozambique 

Nigeria 

Reunion 

Rwanda 

Sao Tome and Principe 

Sierra Leone 

Tanzania 

Uganda 

Zaire 



Africa 



ANGOLA 



The biomes of Angola range from hyper-arid Karroo-Namib in the south-west, to Guinea- 
Congolian rainforest in the far north-west. Cloud forests are limited in extent, and confined to 
isolated Afromontane forest patches totalling less than 200ha in the districts of Huambo. 
Benguela and Huila, and to more extensive but discontinuous forests along the upper Angola 
escarpment. At least two protected areas have been recommended to protect certain of these 
cloud forests, and pressures range from timber and fuelwood collection, to coffee plantations. 
The forests are considered vulnerable due to their small size and often restricted range (Collar 
and Stuart, 1988; Huntley. 1974; World Bank, 1993). 



References 

Collar N.J. and Stuart S.N. 1 988. Key forests for threatened birds in Africa. ICBP Monograph 

No. 3, International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge. 

Huntley B.J. 1974. Ecosystem conservation priorities in Angola. Unpublished MS, prepared 

for Service de Proieccao a Fauna. 
World Bank 1993. Ecologically Sensitive Sites in Africa: Volume III: South-Central Africa and 
Indian Ocean. Compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre for The World Bank, 
Washington, DC, USA. 




Huambo/Bailundu Highlands 




A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Angola 



Angolan Escarpment 

A number of fragmented forests extending along the Angolan Escarpment between Dondo and 
Quilenges. var},'ing in size between a few to several thousand hectares. The largest is ilic 
Amboim Forest, with other forests occurring at Gabela. Vila No\a do Seles. Dondo. 
Mumbondo. Asango and Conda. Grading into a dr\'er forest at lower ele\ations. the moist upper 
forests attain a canopy height of up to 40m and are typified by trees such as Bumhux refluxiini. 
Khaya acanthotheca, Blighia iinijugata, Zanha golungensis. Pipladeniastnim africuniini. C'clii.\ 
mildbraedii and Spathodea cumpamdata. Epiphytes are abundant. The forests are considered 
important as refugia for several threatened and near-threatened bird species. The gabela helmet- 
shrike Prionops gabela. gabela akalat Sheppardia gabela and amboim bush-shrike Laniurius 
(liihderi) amhoimensis are near-endemics to the Gabela region, whilst monteiro's bush-shrike 
Malaconutus monleiri and pulitzer's longbill Macrosphemts pulitzeri are endemic to the 
Angolan escarpment. Threats to the forests are exacerbated due to their generalh' small and 
fragmented nature. They include planting of coffee as an understore> cash crop. No areas are 
currently protected, but a SOsq.km. Gabela Strict Nature Reserve has been proposed. Part of tiie 
lower, drier forest type has been incorporated within Parque Nacional da Kisama (Collar and 
Stuart, 1988; World Bank. 1993). 



Huambo/Bailundu Highlands 

Numerous small to very small Afromontane forests covering a total area of under 200ha are 
scattered through the mountains of Huambo, Benguela, Cuanza Sul and Huila districts. The> 
primarily occur in sheltered ravines at elevations between 2000-2500m and are of great 
biological importance as they represent isolated relics of a fonnerly more widespread biome. 
The most important aggregations of forest occur on Mount Moco, where a total forested area of 
about lOOha exists, and on Mount Soque and the Mambolo Plateau. Threats to the forests 
include the collection of fuelwood and hunting by local communities. Dominant trees are 
10- 15m in height, and include the genera Podacarpiis. Pittosponim, Olea and Ilex. Larger 
mammals have been heavily hunted, but yellow baboon Papio cynocephalits. red-footed squirrel 
Fimisciiints pyrrhupiis. bushpig Polamochoeriis purcm and blue duiker Cephuloplnis 
monticola survive. The forests support an interesting avifauna. Of thirty species collected from 
Mount Moco, seven are restricted to the isolated montane forests of Africa in Cameroon, 
Ethiopia. Bioko, Uganda and Tanzania. Swierstra's francolin Francolimis swierstrae is an 
Angolan highland endemic, and black-chinned weaver Ploceus nigrimentum and Margaret's 
batis Batis margariiae have also been recorded. 



ANGOLA: CLOUD FOREST SUMMARY 



Cloud Forest Region 



Cloud Forest Site 







Date: 


27/06/91 






Protected* 








Yes/No? 


/ 






No 


10°28'S/ 


UMZ'E 




No 


10°33'S/ 


U°10'E 




No 


/ 






No 


lO'ZS'S/ 


U°11'E 




No 


10°06'S/ 


U°07'E 




No 


10°42'S/ 


U°09'E 




No 


1 






No 


12°13'S/ 


U°3«'E 




No 


/ 






No 



Angolan Escarpment 



Huambo/Bailundu Highlands 



Aiit>oim Forest 

Assango Forest 

Conda Forest 

Dondo Forest 

Gabela Forest 

Humbondo Forest 

Vila Nova do Seles Forest 

Mambolo Plateau 

Mount Moco 

Mount Soque 



Total No. of 
CF Regions^ 2 



Total No. of 
CF Sites= 10 



Total No. of CF Sites with 
an element of protection « 



* 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria 



Africa 



BURUNDI 



Co\ering an area of 27.73 Isq. km (of which 2000sq.km forms part of Lake TangaiiNika). 
Burundi is situated in the highlands along the eastern arm of the Western Rift Valle\. The land 
surface only falls below the 1000m contour along the shores of Lake Tanganyika (773m). Cloud 
forests occur on the ridge of the Zaire-Nile Divide which extends from Uganda, through 
Rwanda and Burundi down into Zambia. This ridge forms part of the larger Albertine Rift 
region. In Burundi the ridge is located on the western boundary at approximateh' 267Qm. runs 
roughly north-south and provides the highest land in the country. 

The protected areas system comprises ten protected areas, four of which are demarcated on the 
ground. This system currently covers just over 3% of the country, most of which is montane 
cloud forests. Although the reserves are of national significance, they are not important on a 
regional scale and do not merit international aid (MacKinnon and MacKinnon. 1987). 

Burundi is very densely populated, leading to a high population pressure on natural resources. 



References 

FAO/PNUD. 1974. La conservation et la gestion de la faune et de la flore au Burundi. Rapport 

au govemement du Burundi, etabli sur base des travaux de J.B. Bider. 37pp. 
MacKinnon. J.. MacKinnon. K. 1986. RevicM' of ihc prolecled areas system in the Afrolropicul 

Realm. lUCN, Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge, UK/LrNEP. Nairobi. Kenya. 259 pp. 
Ndabaneze. P. 1990. The mountain flora of Burundi. In: (Eds.) Messerli. B. and Humi. H., 

Afi-ican mountains and highlands. African Mountains Association. Pp. 229-236 
Verschuren. .L 1976. Conservation de la nature et pares nationaux au Burundi. Rapport de 

mission. 25 juin au 26 aout 1976. Resume et Conclusions. Institut Ro\al des Sciences 

Naturelles de Belgique. Bruxelles. 2 pp. 
Verschuren. J. 1977. Burundi and wildlife: Problems of an overcrowded country. Orvx 14(3): 

237-240. 
Weber & Vedder. 1984. Forest conservation in Rwanda and Burundi. Swara 7(6) 32-35. 
Wilson v.. I. 1990. Preliminary survey of the duikers and other mammals of Burundi, east 

Africa. Pan African Decade of Duiker Research (1985-1994). 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 

Cloud Forest Region Summaries : Burundi 

Bururi 

A relic forest covering 1600ha located on the southern edge of the Zaire-Nile Di\ide. Bururi 
Forest is interesting given that it is recognised as a biogeographical crossroads. The cloud forest 
lies between 1900m and 2150m. Approximately 19 species of tree are found, dominated b\ 
Slrombosia and Myrianthus. Tabernaemonlana. Newlonia and Entadruphragma. The forest 
supports important fauna, including 87 bird species, 5 carnivores, and 5 primates, including the 
chimpanzee Pan troglodytes. 



Kibira 

Located in the north of the country on the central portion of the Zaire-Nile Divide, Kibira forest 
covers an area of 40.000ha and constitutes an extension of Nyungwe forest (90.000ha) in 
Rwanda. Together they form the largest afromontane forest block in Africa. The forest ranges in 
altitude from 1600m to 2900m. Kibira has been protected since 1933. but in reality from onl\ 
1980 (Wilson 1990). Only 16% remains as primary forest (Wilson 1990), composed of 
Sypmhonia globuUfera. Newlonia buchananii, Albizia gummiferu and Entadrophragma 
excelsum. The forest holds animal species of conservation concern, including the mountain 
monkey Cercopithecus Ihoesti. chimpanzee Pan troglodytes, and several restricted range bird 
species {Bradypterus graiieri. Alethe poliophrys. Hemitesia neiimanni. Cryptospiza shellcyi). 
There is much pressure on the forest due to illegal activities including poaching, bamboo 
cutting, wood cutting and burning. 



BURUNDI: CLOUD FOREST SUMMARY 



Date: lT/06m 



Cloud Forest Region 



Cloud Forest Site 



Protected* 
Yes/Mo7 



Bururi 
Kibira 



Bururi 
Kibira 



3°56'S/ 29°35'E 
2°43'S/ 29°20'E 



No 
No 



Total No. of 
CF Regions= 2 



Total No. of 
CF Sites= 2 



Total No. of CF Sites with 
an element of protection c 



* 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria 



Africa 



CAMEROON 



Although much of southern and south-western Cameroon is forested, montane forest is 
primarily confined to the western high plateaux along the border with Nigeria. These include the' 
Tchabal Mbabo and Bamboutos Mountains, and to related but isolated massifs such as Mts. 
Manengouba, Cameroon and Kupe. Western Cameroon has the largest area of montane habitats 
in V/est and West-central Africa, yet the combined area of montane forest and montane 
grassland constitutes less than one percent of the country's land area. Trees that are 
characteristic of montane forests in Cameroon include Podocarpus latifoJhis. Primus africanus, 
Rapanea melanophloeos and Syzygium staudtii. Levels of endemism are fairl\' high, but species 
diversity is low. This is assumed to result from gross reductions in forest cover during glacial 
epochs. Wildlife typical of the montane forests includes Preuss's guenon Cercopithccus prcussi. 
bushbuck Tragelaphus scriptus. blue duiker Cephalophus monticola, black-fronted duiker C. 
nigrifrons and yellow-backed duiker C. syhicultor. Much of the montane areas are threatened 
by activities associated with human encroachment (ICBP 1987. 1988; Lamarque et a!.. 1990; 
Sayer et ai, 1992; Richards, 1996; World Bank 1993). 



References 

ICBP. 1986. Conservation of Cameroon Montane Forests. Ed. S.N. Stuart. Report of the 

ICBP Cameroon Montane Forest Survey. 
ICBP. 1987. The conservation of Oku Mountain Forest. Cameroon (project proposal). 

Cambridge, UK. 
ICBP 1988. Key forests for threatened hirds in Africa. ICBP Monograph No. 3. Lamarque F., 

Stark M.A.. Fay J.M. and Alers M. 1990. Cameroon. 

In: Antelopes - Global Survey and Regional Action Plans. Part 3: H'esi and Central 

Afi-ica. Ed. R. east. lUCN/SSC Antelope Specialist Group. 
Larison B.. Smith T.B., Fotso R., McNiven D., Holbrook K. and Lamperti I. 1995. 

Preliminary report - Surveys of selected montane and lowland areas of Cameroon. 

Unpublished WWF MS. 
Richards P.W. 1996. The tropical rain forest - an ecological study (second edition). Cambridge 

University Press. 
Sayer J.A., Harcourt C.S. and Collins N.M. 1992. The comervalion atlas of tropical forests: 

Africa. Macmillan. 
World Bank 1993. Ecologically sensitive sites in Africa. Volume L Occidental and Central 

Africa. Compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre for The World Bank, 

Washington, DC, USA. 



"^^ 



f 



CAMEROON 



250 km 





^Tchabal Mbabo 



Bamenda Highlands 



\^mpi Hills .. 



Mount 
Caff^roon 





A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Cameroon 



Bamenda Highlands 

Lying along the Nigerian border and extending into Nigeria in parts, these highlands contain tlic 
Bamboutos Mountains and Mt. Oku. and are connected with the Tchabal Mbabo plateau in the 
north. 



Hosere Vokre 

Relict Podocarpus forests exist on this isolated massif. The pink-footed puffback Dryoscopu.s 
angolemis, cinnamon bracken warbler Bradypterus cinnamomeus and Preuss's sunbird 
Nectarinia preussi occur at the northenunost limit of their distribution. Human impacts are 
extreme and include encroaching agriculture, fire, grazing pressure and hunting (WWF. 1995). 



Mount Cameroon 

This is an isolated, active volcano on the coast of Cameroon's South- West Province, and is the 
highest mountain in West Africa. Reaching a height of 4100m it supports a narrow belt of 
montane forest between 1800-2 130m dominated by trees such as Schejflcni uhyssinica. 
Syzygium staiidtii and S.mannii. The lower woody stratum is dominated by AUophyhis bulla! us. 
and by semi-woody plants such as Mhmdopsis solmsii and Oreacanthus mcmnii. Wildlife 
includes species such as Preuss's guenon Cercopithecus preussi, drill Mcmdrilhis kucophueus. 
chimpanzee Pan troglodytes and low numbers of elephant Loxodonta africana. The Mount 
Cameroon francolin Francolinus ccimerunensis is endemic to the mountain, and two threatened 
and four near-threatened bird species occur. A protected area has been proposed that would 
incorporate the upper forests around the southern end of the mountain, and the Mount 
Cameroon Project has been initiated to help achieve this. Threats to the forests include the • 
felling of trees for their medicinal bark, intensive hunting by locals, and annual fires in the 
grasslands above the forests. Periodic lava flows have destroyed areas of forest in the past 
(Collar and Stuart. 1988; Richards. 1996). 

Rumpi Hills 

Covering an area of about 45km by 30km, the Rumpi Hills support limited amounts of montane 
forest on the higher peaks. The highest is Mt. Rata, at 1 768m. A few montane species such as 
Xylopia africana occur, and Preuss's guenon Cercopithecus preussii is reportedly common. 
Three threatened and four near-threatened bird species have been recorded as has the endemic 



12 



CAMEROON: CLOUD FOREST SUMMARY 



Date: 27/06/97 



Cloud Forest Region 



Bamends Highlands 



Hos6r« Vokri 
Mount Cameroon 
Riiipi Hills 
Tchabal Mbabo 

Total No. of 
CF Regions: 5 



Cloud Forest Site 



Bamboutos Forests 
Mount KilLiD/Idjim 
Mount ICup6 
Mount Manenguba 
Mount Nlonako 
Hos6r* Voter* 
Mount Cameroon 
Rmpi Hills 
Tchabal Mbabo 



Total No. of 
CF Sites= 9 



5°40'N/ 10°05'E 
6°12'N/ WZZ't 



A'iT'U/ 


9°42'E 


5°01'N/ 


9°51'E 


4°53'N/ 


9°55'E 


8°30'N/ 


13°50'E 


4"07'M/ 


9°10'E 


4°50'N/ 


9"'06'E 


7''16'N/ 


12°09'E 



Protected* 
Yes/No7 



No 

Yes 

No 

No 

No 

No 

Yes 

No 

No 



Total No. of CF Sites with 
an element of protection • 2 



* 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria 



Africa 



chameleon Chamaeleo eisentrauti. but it is not isJiown to what extent the\ utilise the montane 
elements of the hills (ICBP. 1986; World Bank. 1993). 



Tchabal Mbabo 

Tchabal Mbabo is a 25km long, bowl-shaped east-west ridge, the north and west-facing slopes 
of which are extensively forested with dense montane forest between 1 600-201 Om. The upper 
storey is dominated by the trees Syzygium staiidlii. Schefflera ahyssinica and Carapu 
grcmdi flora, with a high diversity of epiphj'tes. Species associated with grassland and forest 
openings are Adenocarpus mannii. Philippia mannii and Aguaria salicifolia. Significant 
wildlife populations survive, including buffalo Syncerus coffer, yellow-backed duiker 
Cepiwlophus sylvicultor, bay duiker C. dorsalis, bushbuck Tragelaphus scripiiis. black and 
white colobus Colobus guereza and giant forest hog Hylochoerus meinertzhageni. Several bird 
species endemic to the western Cameroon/eastern Nigeria uplands region have been recorded, 
three of which are regarded as threatened or potentially threatened. The area offers one of the 
most significant possibilities to protect montane forest in Cameroon. The forests are extensive 
and human pressures are low (Collar and Stuart. 1988; World Bank. 1993; Larison cl ai. 1995). 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



COTE DTVOIRE 



The only higher ahitude forest that occurs in Cote d'lvoire occurs on Mount Nimba on the Joini 
borders with Liberia and Guinea. The mountain supports a transitional "mist forest" between 
1000- 1600m dominated by Parinari excelsa and Uapcicci chevalieri.. It is mentioned here 
because of its exceptionally high degree of endemism (Collar and Stuart. 1988; WCMC 1 Wl ). 



References 

Collar and Stuart 1 988. Key forests for threatened birds in Africa. ICBP Monograph No. 3 
World Bank 1993. Ecologically sensitive sites in Africa. Vol. IV: West Africa. Compiled by the 

World Conservation Monitoring Centre for The World Bank, Washington. DC, USA. 
World Conservation Monitoring Centre 1991. Guide de la diversite biologiqiie de Cote d'lvoire. 
WCMC, Cambridge. UK. 



14 



COTE D'lVOIRE 



150 km 




C6TE D'lVOIRE: CLOUD FOREST SUMMARY "ate: 27/06/97 

Protected* 
Cloud Forest Region Cloud Forest Site Yes/Mo7 



NintM Range Mouit Niirtia 7°33'N/ 8°27<U No 

Total No. of Total No. of Total No. of CF Sites Kith 

CF Regions= 1 CF Sites= 1 an element of protection « 

* 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Hanagement Category I-VI criteria 



Africci 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Cote d'lvoire 



Nimba Range 

Pait of the "Guinea Backbone", which is found across the borders of Liberia. Cote d'Koire and 
Guinea, Mount Nimba reaches an ahitude of 1752m. It features a ver}- high degree of 
endemism, with over 500 new species described from the area. Endemics include the Nimba 
fl\catcher Melaenornis annamanilae, lesser otter shrew Ncciophrynoides lihcriunsis and o\er 
20 species of invertebrate. The massif has high water catchment values. The Mount Nimba 
Strict Nature Reser\'e covers 5000ha and is also a World Heritage Site (World Bank. 1993). 



17 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



EQUATORIAL GUINEA 



Equatorial Guinea comprises the small mainland territon.' of Rio Muni on the Atlantic coast 
between Gabon and Cameroon, and the island islands of Bioko (Fernando Po) and Annobon in 
the Gulf of Guinea. The only montane areas occur on the island of Bioko, which is part of the 
Cameroon Line of Tertian.' to recent volcanoes and lies 32km off the coast of Cameroon 
(WCMC. 1996). 



References 

Collar and Stuart. 1988. Key forests for threatened birds in Afi-ica. ICBP Monograph No. 3. 
Sayer J.A., Harcourt C.S., Collins N.M. 1992. The conservation atlas of tropical forests: Africa. 

Macmillan. 
WCMC 1996. PADU datasheet. 
World Bank 1993. Ecologically sensitive sites in Africa. Volume I: Occidental and Central 

Africa. Compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre for The World Bank. 

Washington, DC, USA. 



18 



EQUATORIAL GUINEA 



f °- 



15 km 




EQUATORIAL GUINEA: CLOUD FOREST SUMMARY "'*'= 27/06/97 [ 

Cloud Forest Region Cloud Forest Site 



Bioko Gran Calera de Luba 

Pico Basi le 
Pico Biao 







Protected* 






Yes/No? 


3°Z0'tl/ 


8°33'E 


Yes 


S-SS'M/ 


8''46'E 


Yes 


S-ZO'M/ 


8»38'E 


Yes 



Total No. of Total No. of Total No. of CF Sites Hith _ 

CF Regions: 1 CF Sites= 3 an element of protection = 3 I 



* 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria 



Afncci 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Equatorial Guinea 



Bioko 

Covering an area of 2017sq.km, Bioko Island was connected to the African mainland between 
10.000-11.000 B.P. when sea levels were lower. The island is dominated by two connected 
mountain masses. Pico Basile (3011m) in the north is the island's highest point, while the 
southern third of the island consists of a rugged plateau reaching a height of 2009m on Pico 
Biao. and 2261m on Gran Caldera de Luba. Rainfall in the wetter south of the island can exceed 
1 0.OOOmm/annum. Although montane rain forest occurs between 900-2400m. true Schcfflcra- 
dominated "lichen forest" only occurs above 1900m. The upper forests are home to the island's 
only endemic bird, the Fernando Po speirops Speirops brunneus, and several rare primate 
species such as an endemic subspecies of drill Mandrillus leucophaea occur. Two protected 
areas exist: Pico Basile o Sta. Isabel and Sur de la Isla de Bioko, both of which include montane 
forests. Pressures on the montane forests are low, apart from hunting (Collar and Stuart. 1988: 
Sayer el al., 1992; World Bank. 1993). 



21 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



ETHIOPIA 



Highlands above 2500m in elevation cover 43% of Ethiopia, and account for ^)0°o of 
agriculturally suitable land. The Rift Valley runs from the south-west of the countr\ north and 
north-eastwards towards the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, on either side of which lie highland 
plateaux averaging between 2100-2500m in elevation. Dry and moist forms of montane and 
upper montane forests occur along the eastern escarpment north of the Rift Valley, around the 
Bale. Sidamo and Hararghe plateaux, on massifs on the huge Central Plateau such as Simen 
(incorporating the highest point in Ethiopia at 4624m). Guna and Birhan massifs, and in the 
south-west of the country in southern Wollega. Illubabor and Kaffa provinces. The montane 
forests of Ethiopia can be divided into moist and dry forms. Dryer forests are typified by trees 
such as Junipenis procera, Apodytes dimidiata. Halleria lucida. and Olea species. Wetter forms 
of montane forest are characterised by mixed Podocarpus g/-ac///or-broadieaf communities. 
Upland and montane forests have been under intense human pressure in Ethiopia for a 
considerable period, and it is estimated that of an original cover of 176.000 sq.km of 
Podocarpus/ Junipenix forest, only 0.9% now remains. Similarly, only 1 1% of the area fomierl_\' 
covered by broadleaved upland forests now survives (WCMC, 1 991 ). 



References 

Hillman J.C. 1993. Ethiopia: Compendium of Wildlife Conservation Information. I'ols I ct 2. 

Ethiopian Wildlife Conservation Organisation. Addis Ababa. 
Ministry of Agriculture. Natural Resources Conservation and Development 1 986. Management 

Plan: Simen Mountains National Park and Surrounding Rural Area. UNESCO and 

WCS. 

The World Bank. 1993. Ecologically sensitive sites in Africa. Volume II: Eastern Africa. 

Compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre for The World Bank. 

Washington, DC, USA. 
Uhlig S.K. and Uhlig K. 1991 . Studies on the altitudinal zonation of forests and alpine plants in 

the central Bale Mountains. Ethiopia. Mountain Research and Development. Vol.1 1(2) 

pp. 153-156. 
WCMC. 1991. Biodiversity guide to Ethiopia. World Conservation Monitoring Centre. 

Cambridge. 



■y^ 



ETHIOPIA: CLOUD FOREST SUMMARY 



Cloud Forest Region 

Central Plateau 

Sidaoio, Bale and Hararghe plateaux 



Cloud Forest Site 



Date: 27/06/9 

Protected* 
Yes/Nol 



Simen Mountains 
Bale Mountains 



13°00'H/ 38°00'E 
7°00'N/ 40°00'E 



Yes 
No 



Total No. of 
CF Regions: 2 



Total No. of 
CF Sites= 2 



Total No. of CF Sites with 
an elenent of protection - 1 



* 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria 



Africa 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Ethiopia 



Central Plateau 



Occurring at elevations between 1600-3300m, only scattered remnants of this forest t\pe now 
survive. Dominant trees are Jimiperus procera and Olea ewopaea ssp. africana. associated in 
places with species such as Podocarpus gracilior, Cordia abyssinica. Domheya schimpcriwui 
and Elvetia cymosa. It includes sites such as the Simen Mountains in north-central Ethiopia, 
and Mt. Guge (4200m) to the west of Lake Abaya (WCMC. 1991: World Bank. 1993), 



Sidamo, Bale and Hararghe plateaux 

Occurring in the south-east of Ethiopia, these plateaux support both moist and dr) forests 
between 1500-2700m. Little is known of their overall composition. The Bale Mountains (7°N. 
40°E) form the highest section of the southern plateaux south of the Rift Valley, reaching a 
height of4377m (World Bank. 1993; Uhlig and Uhlig, 1991; WCMC, 1991). 



25 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



GABON 



Gabon, located on the west coast of Equatorial Africa, lies entirel\ within the CiLiinco- 
Congolian regional centre of endemism which is the most biologically di\erse region in the 
continent. The interior uplands consist mainly of plateau surfaces of 450m to 600m dissected 
by the Ogooue River system into distinct blocks. The plateau surface is broken by the Monts dc 
Crista! in the north and the Massif du Chaillu in the south, with the highest mountains just o\er 
1000m. 

The rain forests, which comprise an estimated 8000 species of plants, cover about 85°/o of the 
country. In the north-east of the country the mountains are covered between 950m and 1000m 
with a type of vegetation known as "elfin thicket" found nowhere else in Africa. The remaining 
area, mostly in the south-east and south-west, is largely savanna, which is thought to be a 
climatic remnant from a drier past. 

Gabon is one of the few countries in the world that still offers exceptional potential for 
conservation, as in general, the major ecosystems remain intact. Along with adjacent areas of 
Cameroon and Congo, it forms what is probably the largest intact forest block remaining in 
Africa (WWF, 1991). However, forest exploitation is highly selective. 90% of trees cut being of 
one species, okoume Aiiconiea klaineancu an important species for use as plywood and \eneer 
(Tutin and Fernandez. 1987). 

The protected areas system (excluding forest reserves) currently comprises 10 reser\'es which 
cover just over 6% of the country. No national parks exist and selective logging has affected the 
forests in four of the areas (Sayer. Harcourt and Collins. 1992). Additional areas are in need of 
protection, particularly the primary forest north and south of the Ogooue. The ecological impact 
of shifting cultivation is not serious as population density is very low. 



References 

Davis. S.D., Droop, S.J.M., Gregerson. P., Henson, L.. Leon. C.J.. Villa-Lobos, J.L., Synge. H. 

and Zantovska, J. 1986. Plants in danger: what do wc know'? lUCN. Gland. Switzerland 

and Cambridge. UK. Pp. 127-128. 
Hughes. R.H. and Hughes, J.S. 1991. Directory of African wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland 

and Cambridge, UK/UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya/WCMC. Cambridge, UK. Pp 481-492. 
lUCN. 1987. Action strategy for protected areas in the Afrotropical Realm. lUCN. Gland. 

Switzerland and Cambridge. UK. 60 pp. 
lUCN. 1989. La conservation des ecosystemes forestiers d'Afriqiie centrale. lUCN. Gland. 

Switzerland and Cambridge. UK. 124 pp. 



26 



Africa 



lUCN. 1990. La conservation dcs ecosystemes foresticrs du Gabon. Based on the work of Cliris 

Wilks. lUCN, Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK. 228 pp. 
lUCN. 1983. La repartition des aires protegees en fonction des besoins de la conser\ation des 

communautes biotiques de i'Afrique Centrale et de I'Ouest. Working Document. Il'CN. 

Gland. Switzerland. 
MacKinnon, J. and MacKinnon. K. 1986. Review of ihe prolecled areas sysiem in ihc 

Afrotropical Realm. lUCN, Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK/UNEP. Nairobi. 

Kenya. 259 pp. 
McShane, T.O. 1990. Conservation before the crisis-an opportunity in Gabon. Oryx 24: 9-14. 
McShane, T.O. and McShane-Caluzi, E. 1990. Conservation before the crisis: A strateg\ for 

conservation in Gabon. WWF. 
Nicoll. M. and Langrand. O. 1986. Conservation et utilisation ralionnelle des ecosvsfcmcs 

forestiers du Gabon. Project 3247. WWF/UICN, Gland. 1 43 pp. 
Sayer. .I.A., Harcourt. C.S. and Collins N.M. 1992. The Conservation Atlas of Tropical Forests: 

Africa. lUCN. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge. UK. 
Tutin. C.E.G. and Fernandez. M. 1987. Gabon: A Fragile Sanctuan,'. Primate Con.servaiion 8: 

160-161. 
WWF. 1991. List of Approved Projects. Vol. 6: Africa/Madagascar. P. 6072. 



27 



GABON: CLOUD FOREST SUHMARY 



Date: ni^ltl 



Cloud Forest Region 



Cloud Forest Site 



Protected* 
Yes/No? 



Honts Doudou 
Monts de Bilinga 
Honts de Christal 
Honts du ChaiUou 



Honts Doudou 
Monts de Bilinga 
Monts de Christal 
Monts du Chaillou 



2°23'S/ lO-ZO'E 
r07'N/ 13°12 E 
0°35"M/ 10°36'E 
r37'S/ ir53"E 



No 
No 
No 
No 



Total No. of 
OF Regions^ 4 



Total No. of 
CF Sites= 4 



Total No. of CF Sites yith 
an element of protection * 



'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Hanagement Category I-VI criteria 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Gabon 



Monts Doudou 

The Monts Doudou are located between Sette-Cama and Moukalaba Reser\es in the south-west 
of Gabon. They constitute a mountain range oriented north-south, covering an area of 
260.000ha. The vegetation belongs to the Guineo-Congolean type. The flora of the Monts 
Doudou is rich and includes a new sub-species of Begonia hongoensis and an undescribed 
Impatiens species (lUCN, 1990). The forest is dominated by okoume Aucoumea kluincunu. 
Mcmopetalanthus spp., Tuubcioiiale brevipanicidata. Dialivm pachyphyUum. DeshorJcsia 
glauccsccns. LibrcviUca klainei. AUanblackia floribimdu and Coiila cdiilis. The site is 
particularly important for the rocky areas whose diverse fauna includes Cephalus ogilhyi 
crusalbiim. endemic to Gabon. However, the Monts Doudou are not officialh' protected (lUCN. 
1990). 



Monts de Belinga 

Located near Belinga, in the north-east of Gabon, the Monts Belinga contain many high peaks 
lying north-south, the highest reaching 1024m. The mountains hold a unique \egetation of 
"elfin thicket", located at altitudes above 900m. The vegetation is dense and reaches 4-8m 
height. Epiphytes, orchidae. bryophytes and lianes are abundant. The fauna is not well known. 
Limited human activities are recorded, although an area of 200-300ha has been proposed for 
protection as an integral forest (lUCN, 1990), due to its unique vegetation. Mining project to 
exploit iron. 



Monts de Christal 

Located on the north-western Gabon-Equatorial Guinea border, the Monts de Cristal (also 
called Tchimbele) cover an area of 410,000ha. The vegetation is Guineo-Congolean and the site 
is recognised as one of the most important centres of endemism in Gabon. A number of 
endemics in the Begoniaceae family are found. The rocky area in the north-east of the 
mountains holds species characteristic of the Soudanian, including Dissorlis barlcrii. 
Afrolrilepis sp. and Sameveria sp. The fauna includes Picalharies ureas, which is only found in 
forests of Cameroon and Gabon. Levels of forest exploitation are low although poaching occurs 
in some areas. A power station project being developed at Kinguele and Tchimbele offers a 
potential threat to the forest (lUCN, 1 990). 



Africa 



Monts du Chaillou 

Located in the central Chaillou massif, the Monts Chaillou are also called Monts Soungou- 
Milondo, the names of the two main peaks: Mont Soungou (1022m) and Mont Milondo 
(1020m). The area covers lOO.OOOha and is not officially protected. Vegetation is again 
dominated by okoume Aucoumea klaineana. Sub-montane forest occurs abo\e 750m and 
includes Begonia ihomeana, which is only found outside Gabon in Sao Tome. Human pressure 
is mainly from poaching and limited to within 2-3 km of the roads bordering the site to the 
north, west and south (lUCN, 1991). 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



GUINEA 

Approximately 20-25% of land in Guinea exceeds 1000m in elevation, most of this in the Foiita 
Djallon and Nimba mountains. The greater part of the country is covered b\ degraded rain 
forest. The only higher altitude forest that occurs is on Mount Nimba on the joint borders with 
Liberia and Cote d'lvoire. which reaches a height of 1752m. The mountain supports a 
transitional "mist forest" between 1000- 1600m dominated by Parimiii c.xcelsa. It is mentioned 
here because of its exceptionally high degree of endemism (Collar and Stuart. 1988). 



References 

Collar and Stuart. 1988. Key forests for threatened birds in Africa. ICBP Monograph No. 3 
World Bank 1993. Ecologically sensitive sites in Africa. Vol. IV: West Africa. Compiled b\ the 
World Conservation Monitoring Centre for The World Bank. Washington. DC. USA. 



32 



GUINEA: CLOUD FOREST SUMMARY 



Cloud Forest Region 



Cloud Forest Site 



Date: 27/06/^ 

Protected* 
Yes/No7 



Nimba Range 



Mount Nintia 



7°34'M/ 8°28'U 



No 



Total No. of 
CF Regions: i 



Total No. of 
CF Sites= 1 



Total No. of CF Sites with 
an element of protection 



* 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria 



Ap-icci 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Guinea 



Nimba Range 

Part of the "Guinea Backbone", which is found across the borders of Liberia. Cote d'hoire and 
Guinea. Mount Nimba reaches an ahitude of 1752m. It features a \'er>' high degree of 
endemism. with over 500 new species described from the area. Endemics include the Nimba 
flycatcher Melaenornis annamarulae, lesser otter shrew Necloplvynoidcs liheriensis and o\ er 
20 species of invertebrate. The massif has high water catchment values. The Mount Nimba 
Strict Nature Reserve covers 5000ha and is also a World Heritage Site (World Bank. 1993). 



35 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



KENYA 



Kenya covers an area of 580.370 sq.km, bordered by Tanzania to the south. Uganda to the west. 
Sudan and Ethiopia to the north, and the Indian Ocean to the east. The altitude ranges from sea 
level to 5200m at Mt. Kenya. The highlands form most of the south-west and central parts of 
the country and have an elevation of between 1400 and 2800m (FAO. 1 98 1). 

Kenya has the most diverse forests in East Africa, with lowland rain forest in western Ken>a. 
montane forest in the central and western highlands and on higher hills and mountains along the 
southern border. In addition, there are some coastal mosaic forests and fairh' extensi\e 
mangroves, particularly at Lamu and the mouth of the Tana River. However. onl> 3.8% (2.2 
million ha) of the country is composed of forested land, 2.1% is inland water bodies, and about 
75% composed of woodlands, bushlands and grasslands, mostly in arid and semi-arid areas 
(ETMA/NES. 1985; Polhill. 1989; WCMC. 1991). 

Cloud forest is found at several sites in the northern mountain range, the southern hills. Mount 
Kenya range and on Mount Elgon. 

The largest proportion of existing national parks and wildlife reserves (74%) are found in arid 
and semi-arid regions (Pertet. n.d.). Forest areas with limited protection in either national parks 
or reserves include the Guineo-Congolean rain forest, coastal forest and woodland and coastal 
palm woodland. Recommendations to expand the protected areas network to include these areas 
are found in MacKinnon and MacKinnon (1986), lUCN (1987) and Stuart and Adams (1990). 

There are reports of heavy encroachment and over-exploitation of many forest areas and other 
biotic communities. Population growth has led to increases in agricultural encroachment, 
shifting cultivation, cattle grazing, illegal settlement, and subsistence hunting, which have put 
the forests under severe pressure. In addition, intensive logging and unlicensed timber 
extraction for building poles and charcoal, the conversion of indigenous forest to plantations 
and the legal degazetting of forest land for conversion to other types of land use and rapid 
industrialisation are major threats to the forest resource, both within and around various forest 
reserves (ERL, 1990; Young, 1984). Other threats include poaching, uncontrolled bushtlres, 
invasion of alien plant species, and tourism impacts (Marsh, 1985; KWS, 1990). 



References 

Bronner, G. 1990. Vegetation and Land use in the Matthews Range Area, Samburu District, 
Kenya. Dissertationes Botanicae 160: 1-182. BerIin:J. Cramer. 



36 



Ap'icu 



Bussman. R.W. The forests of 01 Doinyo Lenkiyio (Mathews Range. Samburu District. 

Kenya). 
Bussmann, R.W. 1994. The forests of Mount Kenya (Kenya) - Vegetation. Ecolog>. 

Destruction and Management of a tropical mountain forest ecos>stem. Dissertation 

Universitat Bayreuth. 
ERL 1990. Environmental study of the Mau and Trans Mara Forests. Kenya. En\ ironmental 

Resources Ltd. Ministr}' of Environment and Natural Resources. Nairobi. Kenya. 143 

pp. 
ETMA/NES 1985. Endangered resources for development. The report on the strategy 

conference for the management and protection of Kenya's plant communities: forests, 

woodlands, bushlands, savannahs, and aquatic communities. Nairobi. 22-23 August 

1984. ETMA (Environmental Training and management in Africa) Regional Office. 

Nairobi. 55 pp. 
FAO 1981. Tropical Forest Resource Assessment Project: Forest Resources of Tropical Africa 

(Part II: Country Briefs - Kenya). FAO. Rome. Pp. 257-268. 
Hughes, R.H. and Hughes. J.S. 1991. Directory of African wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland 

and Cambridge, UK/UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya/WCMC, Cambridge, UK. Pp. 162-188. 
lUCN 1 987. Action strategy for protected areas in the Afrotropical Realm. lUCN, Gland. 

Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. Pp. 36-37. 
lUCN 1990. Regional Office - Eastern Africa: Triennial Report 1988-1990. Prudential Printers 

Ltd., Nairobi. 72 pp. 
KWS 1990. Kenya Wildlife Ser\nce - A policy framework and development programme 

1991-96: Annex 6 - Community conservation and wildlife management outside parks 

and resen'es. Kenya Wildlife Service, Nairobi. 181 pp. 
MacKinnon, J. and MacKinnon, K. 1986. Review of the protected areas system in the 

Afi-otropical Realm. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UKAJNEP, Nairobi, 

Kenya. Pp. 214-216. 
Marsh. C.W. 1985. A resurvey of Tana River primates and their forest habitat. New York 

Zoological Society, New York. 23 pp. 
Polhill, R.M. 1989. East Africa (Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda). In: Campbell, D.G. and Hammond, 

D. (Eds), Floristic Inventory of Tropical Countries. New York Botanical Garden, New 

York. Pp. 218-231. 
Stuart, S.N., and Adams, R.J. 1990. Biodiversity in Sub-.saharan Africa and its islands: 

conservation, management and sustainable use. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland. Pp. 

112-119. 
WCMC 1991. Protected areas system: Kenya. World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 

Cambridge, UK. Draft. 1 8 pp. 
Young, T.P. 1984. Kenya's indigenous forests: status, threats and prospects for conservation 

action. A report to the WWF/IUCN Eastern Africa Regional Office, Nairobi, Kenya. 41 

pp. 



37 



KENYA: CLOUD FOREST SUMMARY 



Cloud Forest Region 



Mount Elgon 

Mount Kenya Volcanic Range 



Northern Mountains 



Southern Hills 



Total No. of 
CF Regions= 4 



Cloud Forest Site 



Mount 


Elgon 


Aberdare Hills 


Mount 


Kenya 


Mount 


Mukogodo 


Ndare 


Ngare 


Ngaia 


Forest 


Nyambeni Hills 


Karisia Hills 


Mathews Range 


Mount 


Kulal 


Mount 


Marsabit 


Mount 


Nyiro 


Ndoto 


Mountains 


Loita 


Hills 


Ngurunan Escarpment 


Total 


No. of 


CF Sites= 15 







Date: 31/07/97 






Protected* 






Yes/No' 


1°02'N/ 


34°30'E 


Yes 


0°25'S/ 


36°41'E 


Yes 


0°10'S/ 


37°30'E 


Yes 


0°04'N/ 


37°26'E 


Yes 


0°13'N/ 


37-21 -E 


Yes 


0°22'N/ 


38°01'E 


Yes 


0°U'N/ 


37°56'E 


Yes 


ril'N/ 


36°47'E 


Yes 


ri7'N/ 


37°18'E 


Yes 


2°43'N/ 


36°56'E 


Yes 


2°20'N/ 


38°00'E 


Yes 


2''10'N/ 


36''50'E 


No 


1°50'N/ 


37°10'E 


Yes 


r42'S/ 


35°53'E 


No 


nt 1<'49'S/ 


35°55'E 


No 



Total No. of CF Sites with 
an element of protection = 12 



* 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Kenya 



The Northern Mountains 

The northern mountain range of Kenya where cloud forest is found includes the Mathews 
Range. Ndoto Mountains, Mount Kulal. Mount Nyiro, Mount Marsabit. and Kanissia Hills 
which includes Maralal and Porror. The annua! average rainfall can be as low as 100-150nim in 
the plains, with 500mm in the valley of the Nyiro-Ndoto mountains. Maximum rainfall is 
recorded in the mountain forest zone, reaching about 1 200mm. 

Montane forest which includes cloud forest at higher elevations and in volcanic craters, is found 
between 1500 and 2700m. The vegetation is dominated by Olea hochstetteri. () ufiicunu. 
Cassipourea malosana and Jimiperus procera. It often forms distinct zones, such as on the 
Mathews range where the forest is composed of mainly Croton megalocarpus from 1 500m to 
2000m, with Olea africana-Jimiperns procera around 1 960m, and Podocarpus lalifoliiis from 
2000m to 2700m (Bronner, 1990). Montane grassland is often found above. 

Although not endemic to cloud forests, bird species including the lammergeier Gypueius 
barhafus, mountain buzzard Buleo oreophilus. yellow-billed hombill Tockiis flaviroslris. 
star-spotted nightjar Caprinndgus slellalns. and Narina's trogon Apuloderma narina are all 
found in the mountain area. At Mount Kulal the fauna is particularly characterised bs' the 
presence of an endemic sub-species of bird, the montane white-eye Zusierops puliugasicr 
kidalensis. 

Most of these forests are gazetted forest reserves, although in many cases the actual forest area 
is only a small proportion of the total area of the reserve. 

There is an increasing pressure on the forests from the local population, mainly by tree felling 
for fuel, and construction of houses and enclosures for livestock. The montane and sub-montane 
forests have been reduced and forest regeneration is hindered in several areas by removal of the 
understorey. Grass fires started by pastoralists erode the forest edge, and periodic droughts have 
also caused problems. A further threats is from extensives fires caused by honey hunters. 



The Southern Hills 

Cloud forests in southern Kenya, found between Nairobi and the Tanzanian border, include the 
Nguruman escarpment and the Loita Hills, where the altitude varies from 1500m to 2100m. The 
climate is characterised by two wet seasons from February-March to May and from October to 
December. Annual rainfall varies from 1500 to 2100mm. 



40 



Africii 



Comprehensive species inventories have been conducted in the area. The montane range is 
dominated by Jimiperion procerae and Cassipoiirion malosanac. Other species include llex 
miiis. Ilea capensis. O europaea. Juniperus pracera. and Podocarpus falcaiiis (Bussmann 
1994. Beck and Bussmann 1995). 

In addition to their ricliness in biodiversity and endemic species, these forests are important for 
watershed protection, socio-economic and medicinal uses, and there is a proposed tourism 
development in the Loita hills (Bussmann, pers. comm.). However, they are also under threat. 
due mainly to agricultural encroachment, grazing and fire. 



Mount Kenya Volcanic Range 

The Mount Kenya volcanic range form the central highlands and are composed of Mount Kenya 
itself, and the Aberdare Hills. Mount Mukogodo, Nyambeni Hills. Ngaia Forest and Ndare. 
Mount Kenya is the second highest mountain in Africa after Kilimanjaro in Tanzania. The 
highest peaks are Batian (5199m) and Nelion (5188m). The climate is characterised by a long 
wet period from March to June and a short dry season from December to February. 

Altitude ranges between 1880 and above 5000m. The vegetation varies with this altitude, a rich 
alpine and sub-alpine flora giving way at lower altitudes to bamboo forests and then montane 
rainforest. On Mount Kenya, at higher altitudes (2500m-3000m with rainfall over 
2000mm/year) the vegetation is dominated by bamboo Ariinduwria alpina and a mosaic of 
bamboo and Podocarpus milanjiamis with bamboo at intermediate elevations (2600m-2800m), 
and Podocarpus above (2800-3000m) and below (2500-2600m). Above 3000m, cold becomes 
an important factor, tree stature declines, and Podocarpus is replaced by Hypericum spp., and 
beyond 3400m there is an alpine zone. In the Abedares, the lower montane forests 
( 1 829-2590m) are dominated by Podocarpus, Olea and cedar Juniperus procera, with some 
tree fern Cyathea deckeni succeeded at higher altitudes (2600-3000m) by Podocarpus and 
bamboo spp Arundinaria alpina. and Hagenia abyssinica with moorland above. 

The fauna includes a number of threatened mammals such as the elephant Loxodonta africana, 
black rhinoceros Diceros hicornis. and leopard Panthera pardus. Bird life is abundant and 
N'aried, with over 200 recorded species including the green ibis Mesemhrinihls cayennensis, 
mountain buzzard Buleo oreophilus. scaly francolin Francolinus squamatus, Hartlaub's turaco 
Tauraco hartlauhi. silvery-cheeked hombill Bycanisles hrevis. Mackinder's eagle owl Bubo 
capensis and the locally threatened scarce swift Schouledenapus myioptilus in the forest areas. 

Forest in the Aberdares is in theory well protected by the Aberdare National Park which was 
established in 1950 and acts as a core zone surrounded by a Forest Reserve of 26,480ha. The 



41 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



park is bisected by a major road, and exploration of the high moorland on foot and trout-fisiiiiiL; 
are permitted. There is increasing pressure from surrounding famiiand expansion and 
uncontrolled tree felling. Accidental forest fires may pose a potential threat if not controlled. 



Mount Elgon 

Mount Elgon is located on the western border with Uganda, and ranges in altitude from 
2336-4627m. The mountain is a massive volcanic cone which rises to 4627m. overlooking a 
huge caldera which, together with half the mountain, lies in Uganda. The vegetation changes 
with increasing altitude from olive Olea hochstelleri and Aningueria achlfi-friec/ericii wet 
montane forest, through olive and Podocarpiis gracilior forest, Podocarpus and bamboo 
Arundinaria alpina zone, with moorland and heath above. Of the 400 species recorded for the 
area the following are of particular note as they only occur in high altitude broad-leaf montane 
forest: Ardisiandra wettsteinii, Carduus afromonlanus, Echinops hoehnelii. Ranunculus 
keniensis, and Romiilea keniemis. The fauna include threatened species such as leopard 
Panthera purdus, and elephant Loxodonta africana. Birds of the forest zone include species 
characteristic of such altitudes in Ceastem Africa and include the endemic subspecies of chat 
Cercomela sordida riidolji and Hunter's cisticola Cislicola Chimteri masaba. Raptors include 
crowned eagle Stephanoaelus coronatus. African hobby Falco cuvierii, mountain buzzard 
Buteo oreophilus. The area was designated a National Park (16,923ha) in 1968 and is officially 
protected. However, there is severe encroachment into the western section of the reserve as well 
as into the forests and moorlands surrounding the Park which act as a buffer for the maintenance 
of these habitats within the reserve. 



Mount Kenya Volcanic Range 

The Mount Kenya volcanic range form the central highlands and are composed of Mount Kenya 
itself and the Aberdare Hills. Mount Mukogodo. Nyambeni Hills and Ndare. Mount Kenya is 
the second highest mountain in Africa after Kilimanjaro in Tanzania. The highest peaks are 
Batian (5199m) and Nelion (5188m). The climate is characterised by a long wet period from 
March to June and a short dry season from December to February. Altitude ranges between 
1880m and above 5000m. The vegetation varies with this altitude, a rich alpine and sub-alpine 
flora giving way at lower altitudes to bamboo forests and then montane rainforest. On Mount 
Kenya, at higher altitudes (2500m-3000m with rainfall over 2000mm/year) the vegetation is 
dominated by bamboo Arundinaria alpina and a mosaic of bamboo and Podocarpus 
milanjianus with bamboo at intermediate elevations (2600m-2800m), and Podocarpus above 
(2800-3000m) and below (2500-2600m). Above 3000m, cold becomes an important factor, tree 
stature declines, and Podocarpus is replaced by Hypericum spp., and beyond 3400m there is an 
alpine zone. IN the Abedares, the lower montane forests (1829-2590m) are dominated by 



42 



Africa 



Padocarpiis, Olea and cedar Juniperus pi-ocera. with some tree fem Cyalhea deckcni succeeded 
at higher altitudes (2600-3000m) by Podocarpiis and bamboo spp Arimciinana Calpina. and 
Hagcnia abyssinica with moorland above. The fauna includes a number of threatened mammals 
such as the elephant Loxodonta afi-icana, black rhinoceros Diceros hicornis. and leopard 
Panlhera pardus. Bird life is abundant and varied, with over 200 recorded species including the 
green ibis Mesemhrinihis cayewwnsis. mountain buzzard Buteo oreophilus. scal\ francolin 
Francolimis squamalus, Hartlaub's turaco Tauraco hartlauhi. silverA-cheeked hombill 
Bycanisles hrevis. Mackinder's eagle owl Bubo capemis and the locally threatened scarce swift 
Schoutedenapiis myioptilus in the forest areas. Threats to Mount Kenya.. Forest in the 
Aberdares is in theory well protected by the Aberdare National Park which was established in 
1950 and acts as a core zone surrounded by a Forest Reserve of 26.480ha. The park is bisected 
by a major road, and exploration of the high moorland on foot and trout-fishing are permitted. 
There is increasing pressure from surrounding farmland expansion and uncontrolled tree felling. 
Accidental forest fires may pose a potential threat if not controlled. 



Northern Mountains 

The northern mountain range of Kenya where cloud forest is found includes the Mathews 
Range. Ndoto Mountains, Mount Kulal, Mount Nyiro. Mount Marsabit. and Karrissia Hills 
which includes Maralal and Porror. The annual average rainfall can be as low as 100- 150mm in 
the plains, with 500mm in the valley of the Nyiro-Ndoto mountains. Maximum rainfall is 
recorded in the mountain forest zone, reaching about 1200mm. Montane forest which includes 
cloud forest at higher elevations and in volcanic craters, is found between 1 500 and 2700m. The 
vegetation is dominated by Olea hochstelleri. O. africana. Cassipoi/rca malosana and 
Jimiperus procera. It often forms distinct zones, such as on the Mathews range where the forest 
is composed of mainly Croton megalocarpiis from 1 500m to 2000m, with Oku afiicana- 
Jimipenis procera around 1960m. and Podocarpiis latifoUus from 2000m to 2700m (Bronner. 
1990). Montane grassland is often found above. Although not endemic to cloud forests, bird 
species including the Clammergeier Gypaelus harhalus. mountain buzzard Biileo Coreophiliis, 
yellow-billed hombill Tockus fJavirostris. star-spotted nightjar Caprimiilgus slellaliis. and ' 
Narina's trogon Apaloderma narina are all found in the mountain area. At Mount Kulal the 
fauna is particularly characterised by the presence of an endemic sub-species of bird, the 
montane white-eye Zosierops poUogaster kulalcnsis. Most of these forests are gazetted forest 
reserves, although in many cases the actual forest area is only a small proportion of the total 
area of the reserve. There is an increasing pressure on the forests from the local population, 
mainly by tree felling for fuel, and construction of houses and enclosures for livestock. The 
montane and sub-montane forests have been reduced and forest regeneration is hindered in 
several areas by removal of the understorey. Grass fires started by pastoralists erode the forest 
edge, and periodic droughts ha\'e also caused problems. A further threats is from extensives 
fires caused by honey hunters. 



43 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Southern Hills 

Cloud forests in southern Kenya, found between Nairobi and the Tanzanian border, include the 
Nguruman escarpment and the Loita Hills, where the altitude varies from 1 500m to 2 1 00m. I'he 
climate is characterised by two wet seasons from February-March to Ma\ and from October to 
December. Annual rainfall varies from 1500 to 2100mm. Comprehensive species in\entories 
have been conducted in the area. The montane range is dominated by Jimiperiun procerac and 
Cassipourion malosanae. Other species include Ilex mills. Ilea capensis. O. eiirupaeu. 
Jimipenis procera. and Podocarpus falcatus (Bussmann 1994. Beck and Bussmann 1995). In 
addition to their richness in biodiversity and endemic species, these forests are important for 
watershed protection, socio-economic and medicinal uses, and there is a proposed tourism 
development in the Loita hills (Bussmann, pers. comm.). However, they are also under threat, 
due mainly to agricultural encroachment, grazing and fire. 



44 



Africa 



LIBERIA 



Although a country of fairly rugged topography, Liberia has no true montane cloud forest. The 
highest point in the country is Mount Nimba (1385m). which supports a "mist forest" between 
1000- 1600m dominated by Parmari excelsa. It is mentioned here both because of its 
exceptionally high degree of endemism. and the threats facing it. A large iron-ore mine has been 
operating on the mountains since 1963, which has attracted large numbers of people to the site. 
This has put enormous pressures on the natural resources of the mountain (Collar and Stuart, 
1988). 



References 

Collar and Stuart. 1988. Key forests for threatened birds in Africa. ICBP Monograph No. 3 
World Bank. 1993. Ecologically sensitive sites in Africa. Vol. IV: West Africa. Compiled by the 
World Conservation Monitoring Centre for The World Bank, Washington. DC, USA. 



45 



LIBERIA: CLOUD FOREST SUMMARY 



Date: 27/06/97 



Cloud Forest Region 



Cloud Forest Site 



Protected* 
Yes/No? 



Nimba Range 



Mount Ninba 



7°32'N/ 8°28'W 



No 



Total No. of 
CF Regions= 1 



Total No. of 
CF Sites= 1 



Total No. of CF Sites with 
an element of protection s 



* ■Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Liberia 



Nimba Range 

Part of the "Guinea Backbone", found across the borders of Liberia. Cote d'hoire and Guinea. 
Mount Nimba reaches an altitude of 1752m. It features a very high degree of endemism. with 
over 500 new species described from the area. Endemics include the Nimba flycatcher 
Melaenornis annamandae. lesser otter shrew Nectuphrynoides liberiemis and o\'er 20 species 
of invertebrate. The massif has high water catchment values. The Mount Nimba Strict Nature 
Reserve covers 5000ha and is also a World Heritage Site (World Bank. 1993). 



48 



Africa 



MADAGASCAR 



Considered as one of the seven major world centres of biodiversity. Madagascar is di\ ided into 
two major floristic zones. Covering about half of the countr)'. the Eastern Zone extends 
westwards from the east coast to the central highlands. The dryer Western region reaches from 
the west coast, eastwards up to about the 800m contour. Most of the Eastern Zone was 
originally forested, but human pressures have had severe impacts on these. The total area of 
surviving montane forests has been estimated at 60,000ha. Sclerophyllous montane forests of 
gnarled Philippia trees with a canopy 10- 13m in height occur along the east-facing central 
escarpment between 1300 and 2000m. Below this zone, moist montane rain forest occurs 
between 800-1 300m, whilst a thicket of cricoid and herbaceous plants occur above 2000m on 
isolated massifs such as Tsaratanana. Marojejy, Ankaratra and Andringitra. The upper montane 
forests are considered to be highly susceptible to being negatively impacted by fire, and their 
limited size and extent are cause for concern (Sayer et.al. 1992: UICN/PNUE/WWF, 1990). 



References 

Collar N..I. and Stuart S.N. 1 988. Key forests for threatened birds in Africa. ICBP 

Monograph No. 3. 
lUCN/UNEP/WWF 1990. Madagascar: Profil de I'environnement. Ed. M.D. .lenkins. lUCN. 
Gland. Switzerland, and Cambridge, UK. 
Sa>er .I.A., Harcourt C.S. and Collins N.M. 1992. The conservation atlas of tropicaf forests: 

Africa. Macmillan. 
World Bank 1993. Ecologically sensitive sites in Africa. Volume III: South-Central Africa and 

Indian Ocean. Compiled by World Conser\'ation Monitoring Centre for The World 

Bank, Washington. DC, USA. 
WWF 1 986. An action plan for conservation of biological diversity in Madagascar. WWF. 



49 




I / 




v_,^ 


: MADAGASCAR 

T 250 km 



MADAGASCAR: CLOUD FOREST SUMMARY 



Date: 27/06/97 



Cloud Forest Region 



Cloud Forest Site 





Protected* 




Yes/No7 


22°12'S/ 46°55'E 


No 


18°50'S/ 47°18'E 


No 


14''26'S/ 49°15'E 


Yes 


13'>57'S/ 48°51'E 


Yes 



Andringitra Massif 
Ankaratra Massif 
Tsaratanana/Marojejy Massif 



Andringitra Massif 
Ankaratra Massif 
Massif du Marojejy 
Massif du Tsaratanana 



Total No. of 
CF Regions= 3 



Total No. of 
CF Sites= 4 



Total No. of CF Sites with 
an element of protection = 2 



* 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Madagascar 



Andringitra Massif 

Amongst the coldest of the Madagascar! upland areas. Andringitra is a rugged granitic massif 
enclosing a plateau area of 2500m on the south-eastern escarpment, west of Mankara. 
Sclerophyllous montane forest 4-5m in height occurs between 1500-2000m. It consists of 
species of Schefflera, Weinmannia. Brachylaena and Philippia. Seven endemic amphibians and 
two endemic molluscs occur, as well as several species of lemur. Fires are a problem. The 
Andringitra Strict Nature Reserve covers 31.160ha of the area (lUCN/UNEP/WWF. 1993; 
World Bank. 1993). 



Ankaratra Massif 

A volcanic massif lying about 70km south of Antananarivo, supporting badly degraded 
montane forests that are considered biologically important. Little recent information exists 
(lUCN/UNEP/WWF. 1 990: World Bank, 1 993 ). 



52 



Atrial 



MALAWI 



Malawi is situated at the southern end of the Western Rift Valle\'. and approximateh 75° o of 
the countr>'s land surface consists of elevated plateaux between 750-1 350m abo\'e sea level. 
These are distributed through the Northern. Central and Southern Regions, and are often 
contiguous with higher mountains such as Mt. Mulanje (at 3000m the highest peak in Malawi). 
Zomba and Mafinga mountains, and the highlands of Nyika. Misuku. Vipya and Dowa. Mean 
annual rainfall varies between 1000-3 100mm. 

These highlands support an estimated 324sq.km. of isolated but extensive montane forest 
patches between 1675-2600m which is generally differentiated into three forms dominated b>- 
Mulanje cypress Widdringtonia whylei, African }unipeT Juniperus proccra and undifferentiated 
broadleaved Afromontane forest dominated by species such as Ilex miris. Kiggelaria africanu. 
AUophvhis abyssinicus, Ekebergia capensis. Pittosponun viridiflonim and Rapanea 
mclunophloeos. The bamboo Anmdinaria alpina occurs (Chapman, 1983; Dowsett-Lemaire. 
1989: MAB. 1982). 



References 

Chapman .I.D. 1983. The evergreen forests of Malawi. Nyala 9(l/2):5-17. 

Dowsett-Lemaire 1989. Vegetation and birds of evergreen forests of southern Malawi, with 

special reference to mid-altitude forests. Nyala 14(l):29-37. 
Lemon P.C. 1964. Natural cornmiinilies of the Malawi Nalional Park (Nyika Plalcaii). 

Government Printer. Zomba. Malawi. 
MAB 1982. Drafl environmental profile of Malawi. U.S. Man and the Biosphere Secretariat. 

Washington. D.C. 
World Bank 1993. Ecologically sensitive sites in Afiica. I'oliime ]'I: Southern Africa. Compiled 

by the World Conser\ation Monitoring Centre for The World Bank, Washington. DC. 

USA. 



MALAWI: CLOUD FOREST SUMHARr 



Date: 27/06/97 



Cloud Forest Region 



Cloud Forest Site 





Protected* 




Yes/Mo? 


H°20'S/ 34°21'E 


Yes 


U'OO'S/ 3i°35'E 


Yes 


lO'SS'S/ 33'50'E 


Yes 



Dedza Hountsin 
Hulanje Mountain 
Nyika Plateau 



Dedza Mountain 
Mulanje Mountain 
Nyika Plateau 



Total No. of 
CF Regions' 3 



Total No. of 
CF Sites': 3 



Total No. of CF Sites with 
■n element of protection > 3 



* 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD EORESTS 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Malawi 



Dedza Mountain 

Montane forest is known to occur between 2050-2 150m on this mountain, which is within the 
Dedza-Sahma Escarpment Forest Reserve, and adjacent to Mount Domue. a cloud forest site in 
Mozambique. 



Mulanje Mountain 

This is an isolated massif in southern Malawi, close to the border with Mozambique. The 
highest point in southern tropical Africa, it consists of a high plateau between 1800- 1900m. 
surmounted by rocky peaks reaching a maximum height of 3001m. Montane forest occurs 
primarily in sheltered valleys and ravines between 1850-2300m. It is often dominated by 
Mulanje cypress Widdringtonia whytei and Olea capensis. Other species of note are 
Podocarpm latifolius, Ekebergia capensis, Cassipowea malosana. Rapanea nwlanophloeos 
and the endemic Rawsonia bitrttdavyi. Six forest birds are considered important; the Thyolo 
alethe Alethe choloensis. an endemic subspecies of olive-flanked robin Alelhe cmomula. Natal 
thrush Turdiis fischerh long-tailed forest scrub-warbler Bradypfcriis cinnamomeiis. moustached 
green tinker-barbet Pogoniidus leiicomystax and the near-threatened white-winged apalis Apalis 
chariessa. The cypresses of Mt. Mulanje have been exploited for timber since the turn of the 
century, and fires, refiigees and invasive alien plants pose further threats. Part of the mountain 
has Forest Reserve status, but levels of protection are low. The mountain has high watershed 
values (WCMC, 1996; World Bank, 1993). 



Nyika Plateau 

This upland is located in north Malawi, on the edge of the East African Rift Valley. Isolated 
montane forest patches cover an estimated 2-4% of the plateau, primarily in sheltered valley 
heads and hollows. Trees such as Hcigeniu abyssmica. Jiinipcrus procera and Rupcmea 
mekmophlocos occur. The plateau has high watershed values, and numerous endemics. Fires are 
a threat to the integrity of the forest patches. The Nyika National Park covers 313,400ha of the 
Malawian part ofthe plateau (Lemon, 1964; WCMC, 1996). 



56 



Africa 



MOZAMBIQUE 



The only Afromontane areas in Mozambique lie along the border with eastern Zimbabwe in the 
Chimanimani Mountains, and on nearb>- Mount Gorongosa. Tending to occur in sheltered areas. 
they attain a canopy height of 20m and are dominated by trees such as Aphloia rheiformis. 
Maesa lanceolata. Cwtisia Jentata. Widdringlonia cupressoides. Podocarpus lalifoliiis and 
Tabernaemonlana stapficma (Sayer et al.. 1992). 



References 

Hughes R.H. and Hughes J.S. 1992. A directory of Afi-ican wetlands. lUCN. Gland. 

Switzerland, and Cambridge, UK/UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya/WCMC. Cambridge. UK. 
Sayer .I.A., Harcourt C.S. and Collins N.M. 1992. The conservation atlas of tropical forests: 

Africa. Macmillan. 
Tinley K.L.. Rosinha A.J., Lobao Tello J. and Dutton P. 1974. Wildlife and wild places in 

Mozambique. Oryx XIII(4). 



57 



MOZAMBIQUE: CLOUD FOREST SUMMARY 



Date: 27/06/97 



Cloud Forest Region 



Cloud Forest Site 





Protected* 




Yes/t(o? 


19°47>S/ 33°03'E 


No 


16°30'S/ 35U'E 


No 


U°28'S/ 34*15'E 


No 


18°27'S/ Si-OS'E 


No 


15°21'S/ 37°02'E 


No 



Chimanimani Mountains 
Moint Chiperone 
Mount Dofliue 
Mount Gorongosa 
Nanuli Massif 



Chimanimani Mountains 
Mount Chiperone 
Mount Donue 
Moult Gorongosa 
Nanuli Massif 



Total No. of 
CF Regions: 5 



Total No. of 
CF Sites= 5 



Total No. of CF Sites with 
an element of protection = 



* 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Mozambique 



Chimanimani Mountains 

Running north-south along the border with and extending into Zimbabwe in the soutliern reyion 
of Mozambique, these mountains support important montane communities, with numerous 
endemics. Montane forests extend into Zimbabwe, and include the adjacent Serra Maquta. The\ 
include Mt. Binga (2436m), the highest point in Mozambique. 



Mount Chiperone 

This isolated peak is situated in western Mozambique. Reaching a height of 2180m it supports 
areas of moist montane forest that are possibly similar to those in neighbouring Malawi (World 
Bank, 1993). 



Mount Domue 

Located in the central region of Mozambique, west of Lake Malawi. Mount Domue lies 
adjacent to Dedza Mountain in Malawi. 



Mount Gorongosa 

Lying 155km east of Zimbabwe's Inyanga Highlands, this is a montane area rising to 1863m. It 
supports extensive areas of wet montane forest, although the extent of true montane elements is 
unclear. Rare birds and an endemic subspecies of chameleon occur. Forest clearance is chronic, 
and the area has been recommended for inclusion within Gorongosa National Park (World 
Bank. 1993). 



Namuli Massif 

The Namuli Massif is the principal watershed of northern Mozambique, reaching a height of 
2419m. Ravines and other sheltered areas support forest, but there is a lack of infonnation on 
the extent and significance of montane elements (Frame and Frame, 1987; World Bank. 1993). 



60 



Africa 



NIGERIA 



Uplands over 1000m in height in Nigeria are restricted to the Cameroon Highlands along the 
south-eastern border with Cameroon, and the Jos Plateau in central Nigeria. The fomier include 
Chabbal Wadi. the countrv''s highest peak (2419m). Limited areas of upland forest occur abo\c 
1500m, usually in ravines and steep-sided valleys. They support species such as Syzyf^iiim 
slaiidlii. Carapa procera, Bridelia speciosa, Cephaelis mannii. Eriococlum macrocurpum and 
Symphonia globulifera. Specific information on the extent of true upper montane associations is 
limited, and it is possible that most, if not all, upland forests in Nigeria are submontane. Few 
parts of Nigeria have escaped modification by man, and it can be expected that montane and/or 
submontane associations outside protected areas such as Gashaka Gumpti and Obudu will be 
under threat (World Bank. 1993). 



References 

Aderopo Akinsoji 1994. Vegetation of Gashaka Gumpti National Park -1. Report 

commissioned by NCF/WWF-UK. 
Hall .l.B. 1981. Ecological islands in south-eastern Nigeria. Afr.J.Ecol. 19:55-72 
Sayer .I.A., Harcourt C.S. and Collins N.M. 1992. The conservation atlas of tropical forests: 

Afiica. Macmillan. 
WCMC \9SS. Nigeria: Conservation of biological diversity. WCMC. Cambridge. 



61 



NIGERIA: CLOUD FOREST SUMMARY 



Date: 27/06/97 



Cloud Forest Region 



Cloud Forest Site 





Yes/Mo? 


9"57'N/ 8°54"E 


No 


8°20'M/ ITSO'E 


Yes 


6°30'M/ 9°15'E 


Yes 



Jos Plateau 
MambiUa Plateau 
Obudu Plateau 



Jos Plateau 
Mambilla Plateau 
Obudu Plateau 



Total No. of 
CF Regions: 3 



Total No. of 
CF Sites= 3 



Total No. of CF Sites with 
an element of protection ° 2 



* 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Nansgenient Category I-VI criteria 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD EORESTS 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Nigeria 



Jos Plateau 

Small relict patches of upland forest occur in gullies and ravines, and along the edges of the Jos 
escarpment. Little information is available (Commonwealth Institute. 1983). 



Mambilla Plateau 

Relict upland forests occur in ravines and along drainages. Species include Syzygiiim sitnultii. 
and species of Syzygiiim, Agaiiria. Clausena and Peddiea. Upper montane elements are 
indicated by Podocarpiis latifolhis and Hypericum revohitum. Part of the plateau is protected 
within Gashaka Gumti National Park (Aderopo, 1994; WCMC, 1988). 



Obudu Plateau 

Forests are confined to steep slopes and valleys, and consist of lowland forest with 
Afromontane elements such as Podocarpiis latifoliiis. Dasykpis raccmosa and Ritchica 
cdbersii. The forests are considered to be of great phytogeographical interest. Mammals include 
leopard Panthera pardus. chimapanzee Pan troglodytes, gorilla Gorilla gorilla, and several 
monkey species. Grazing, fires and hunting are threats (Hall, 1981; World Bank. 1993). 



64 



Africa 



REUNION 



Located to the east of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean. La Reunion is fomied from two 
\oicanic cones, one of which. Piton de la Foumaise (2500m). is still active. The island is 
mountainous, and has the highest peak in the Indian Ocean. Piton de Neiges at 3069m. 

The montane forest is composed of four types of vegetation: 1). species-rich formations of 
Berlicra rufa, Dombeya ficulnea, D. punctata, D. reclinata. Forgcsia hnrhonica. Badulu 
horhonica var. macrophylla, and Monimia rotundifolia, 2). forest of Acacia helerophylla 
(endemic to the Reunion), often associated with Nastus borhonicus. 3). forest of Pandamis 
montanus. and 4). forest of Philippia montana located on slopes and crets (Cadet. 1977). 

High degrees of endemism are found in both flora, 30% of flowering plants out of around 500 
species and about 12% from more than 200 ferns and allies (Baumer 1981; Cadet. 1977: Da\'is 
et al.. 1986), and fauna (Cheke, 1977, 1987b). However, introduced plant species ma_\' number 
up to 1000(Macdonalde?a/., 1991). 

The altitude and the ruggedness of the terrain has meant that large areas of upland \'egetation 
have remained more or less untouched by man's influence, although these have come under 
progressively greater pressure from fires and as use for pasture. In comparison, the relati\el\ 
small area of lowland forest, has been all but totally destroyed by clearance for agriculture and 
grazing, fire, and competition from exotic species. Despite these pressures. Reunion has 
retained significantly more native woody vegetation than any of the other small Indian Ocean 
Islands. Invasion by alien plant species is widespread throughout the remnant native 
ecosN'stems. Outside these remnants, alien plants completeh' dominate the modem Reunion 
landscapes (Bosser, 1983; Cheke, 1987b; Macdonald cl al.. 1991; Wliite, 1983)). The 
threatened plants of Reunion are listed by Dupont and Girard (1989). 

Protected areas were first established in 1 963 with the creation of two strict biological resenes, 
and there are currently five reserves totalling 59 sq.km, of the island's 2500 sq.km (Sayer, 
Harcourt and Collins, 1992). However, despite the high rate of endemism and the raritN' of 
certain plant and animal species, these are insufficient. Both MacKinnon and MacKinnon 
(1986) and lUCN (1987) include sections on Reunion which propose the establishment of 
nature reserves to protect mountain forest, and development of the marine protected areas 
system. In addition, Doumenge and Renard (1989) give detailed proposals for the 
reorganisation of conservation programmes and expansion of the protected area network, with 
information on 1 3 additional reserves. 



65 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



References 

Baumer. M. 1981. Le couvert vegetal a la Reunion. Info-Nature 18: 15-25. 

Bosser. J. 1983. Projet de constitution de reserves biologiques dans le domaine foresticr de La 

Reunion. Report to the Office National de la Foret prepared b\ the ORSTOM Director 

of Research. 35 pp. 
Cadet. J. 1977. La vegetation de Tile de la Reunion. Thesis. University of Marseille. Published 

1980. Imprimerie Cazal, St Denis. 
Cheke, A.S. 1977. Rapport sur la distribution et la conservation du Tuit-tuit. oiseau rarissime 

de la Reunion. Info-Nature 15: 21-38. 
Cheke, A.S. 1987a. An ecological history of the Mascarene Islands, with particular reference to 

extinctions and introductions of land vertebrates. In: Diamond. A.W. (Ed.). Siuc/ies of 

Mascarene Island birds. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. England. L'K. Pp. 

5-89. 
Cheke, A.S. 1987b. The ecology of the surviving native landbirds of Reunion. In: Diamond. 

A.W. (Ed.), Studies of Mascarene Island birds. Cambridge Universit) Press, 

Cambridge. England. UK. Pp. 301-358. 
Davis. S.D., Droop. S.J.M., Gregerson. P.. Henson. L.. Leon, C.J., Villa-Lobos. J.L., Synge. H. 

and Zantovska, J. 1986. Plants in danger: what do we know? lUCN, Gland, Switzerland 

and Cambridge, UK. Pp. 296-297 
Doumenge, C. and Renard, Y. 1989. La conservation des ecosystemes forestiers de I'lle de la 

Reunion. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. 95 pp. 
lUCN 1987. Action strategy for protected areas in the Afi-otropical realm. lUCN. Gland. 

Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. 60 pp. 
Macdonald, I.A.W., Thebaud, C. Strahm, W.A. and Strasberg. D. 1991. Effects of alien plant 

invasions on native vegetation remnants on La Reunion (Mascarene Islands. Indian 

Ocean). Environmental Conservation 18: 51-61 
MacKinnon, J. and MacKinnon, K. 1986. Review of the protected areas .system in the 

Afrotropical Realm. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UKAJNEP, Nairobi. 

Kenya. P. 232. 
Sayer, J.A., Harcourt, C.S. and Collins N.M. 1992. The Conservation Atlas of Tropical Forests: 

Africa. lUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. 
White, F. 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. Unesco, Paris, France. 356 pp. 



66 



REUNION: CLCXJD FOREST SUHHARY 



Date: 27/06/9 



Cloud Forest Region 



Cloud Forest Site 



Reunion 



Picon de Neiges 
Picon de la Fournaise 



Total No. of 
CF Regions: 1 



Total No. of 
CF Sites= 2 



Protected*! 

Yes/No?! 



2rWS/ SS'SS'E 
2ri3'S/ 55"40'E 



No 
No 



Total No. of CF Sites with 
an element of protection > Ol 



* 'Protected* refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria 



Africa 



RWANDA 



Located in the heart of central Africa, astride the east African Rift, all of Rwanda lies between 
800 and 4500m. In general, the land mass is high and rugged, with an exceptional degree of 
relief in which hydrological features play an important role. The north is \olcanic. the west is 
mountainous, the east is rolling terrain. 

The varied topography is responsible for diverse regional climatic conditions and habitat, 
leading to a remarkable variety of different habitats and species. There are two major 
phytogeographic zones: a Sudano-Zambezian zone below 1 800m elevation, and an Afro-.A.lpine 
zone between 1 800m and 4500m. Cloud forests occur in the north and the west of the countr\', 
along the Zaire-Nile Divide which extends from Uganda, through Rwanda and Burundi down 
into Zambia and is part of the larger Albertine Rift Region. The cloud forests are specifically 
found in the Afro-Alpine phytogeographic zone which may be subdivided into an African 
montane zone above 2000m, and an African submontane zone below 2000m. 

All remnant forest lands were set aside as official reserves in 1933, in response to the rapid 
conversion of montane forest to pasture land which had recently occurred (Bissio, 1988; Weber 
and Vedder, 1984). Rwanda is now one of the most densely populated countries in Africa, yet is 
one of the few nations in the world to have more than 10% of its land included within protected 
areas, most of which lies within the two national parks, Volcans and Akagera. 

However, human pressure on natural habitats is very high and this has increased following the 
last civil war. Secondar}' forest mosaics produced by human activity have generally replaced 
natural vegetation in the African submontane zone (lUCN, 1979: Rattray, 1960). 



References 

Bissio, R.R. (Ed.) 1988. In: Third World Guide 89/90. Third World Editors. Pp. 208-209. 
Dowsett R.J. 1990. Survey of the Fauna and Flora of Nyungwe forest, Rwanda. Tauraco 

Research Report, No. 3. 
lUCN 1979. The distribution of protected areas in relafion to the needs of biotic community 

conservation in west and central Africa. lUCN, Morges, Switzerland. 
lUCN 1987. Action strategy for protected areas in the Afrotropicul Reahn. lUCN, Gland, 

Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. 60 pp. 
lUCN/WWF 1985. Rapport d'une mission au Zaire et Rwanda. 20 pp. 



69 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Kanyamibwa. S. 1993. Grey crowned cranes Balearica regulorum as indicators for wetlands 

conser\ation in Rwanda. Paper presented at the African Crane and Wetland Training 

Workshop. Maun. Botswana 8-15 August 1993. 6p 
Kanyamibwa S. 1996. Important Bird Areas in Rwanda - Report to BirdLife International. 

Important Bird Areas for Africa programme. 
MDP 1991. La strategie nationale de I'environnement au Rwanda. Ministere du Plan. Projet 

Environnement et Developpement. I p. 
Montfort, N. 1985. Les Mammiferes du Rwanda. Rotary Club. Kigali. 
ORTPN (1991). Plan de conservation de I'elephant au Rwanda. Unpublished report. Office 

Rwandais du Tourisme. 43 pp. 
Spinage, C, 1972. The ecology and problems of the Volcano National Park. Rwanda. 

Biological Conservation 4: 194-204. 
Verschuren, J. (1990). Que sont devenus les fameux pares nationaux du Zaire et du Rwanda? 

Pares NationauxXLV: 16-29. 
Weber, B. and Vedder, A. 1984. Forest conservation in Rwanda and Burundi. Swara 7: 32-35. 
Weber, B. and Vedder, A. (1991). Rwanda: fragile cease fire in gorilla Enclave. WiMife 

Conservation 94(4): 8-9. 
Wilson V.J. 1990. Preliminary survey of the duikers and other mammals of Burundi, east 

Africa. Pan African Decade of Duiker Research (1985-1994). 
Wilson, R. (1991). The conflict in Rwanda and its impact on the mountain gorilla. Orvx 25: 

119-120. 



70 



RUANDA: CLOUD FOREST SUHHARY 



Cloud Forest Region 



Cloud Forest Site 



Gisuati-Hukura 

Nyungue Forest 
Viriviga Mountains 



Gisuati Forest 
Hukura Forest 
Nyungue Forest 
Vol cans 



Total No. of 
CF Regions: 3 



Total No. of 
CF Sites= 4 



1°46'S/ 29°26'E 
rSB'S/ 29'32'E 
2°30'S/ 29°20'E 
r28'S/ 29"33'E 



Date: 27/06/97 

Protected* 
Yes/No? 



No 
No 
Yes 
Yes . 



Total No. of CF Sites with | 
an element of protection « 2 



* 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Hanagement Category 1-VI criteria 



Africa 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Rwanda 



Giswati-Mukura 

Gishwati and Mukura forests are located in the west of Rwanda, on the Zaire-Nile Di\ide. at an 
altitude of 2000-2900m. Whilst the forests have been repeatedly degraded, actual areas are 
estimated at 6000ha for Gishwati and 2100ha for Mukura. The vegetation in both forests is 
typical of montane forest habitats and includes Crysophvlliim. Entandophragma and Scwioniu 
at lower altitudes, and Syzygium guineense, Carapa grandiflora. Parinari excdsa. Siromhosiu 
and Symphonia in mature forest. The fauna and flora are typical of the Albertine Rift montane 
forest ecosystems. These forests hold many species of conservation concern, including the rare 
african tree species Podocarpus, and primates such as Pan troglodytes, Cercopithecus Ihoesti 
and Cercopithecus mitis sp.. and a number of Albertine Rift endemic bird species. However, 
only occasional surveys have been conducted in Gishwati and further assessment is needed. As 
with other forest reserves in the country, Gishwati and Mukura were established in 1993. 
However, they have been degraded and reduced significantly in size, due to a high demand for 
agricultural land and grazing. 



Nyungwe Forest 

Nyungwe forest lies in the south of Rwanda and runs into the smaller Kibira forest in Burundi. 
It is subdivided from the north to the south by the Zaire-Nile massif (2600-2900m) leading to 
two distinctive areas in terms of pedology, vegetation, water flow and as a result, biodiversity. 
The western section is schistose, with a very dense forest at 1 700-2000m. The eastern section, 
which is granitic, lies higher (2200-2500m) and is dominated by many clearings and secondar\' 
forest. The highest peak. Mt. Bigugu (2950m) is located in the mid-west of the forest. The 
annual average rainfall is 1500-2500mm. with most of the cloud forest found in the wetter 
south-western zone. Close to Nyungwe, Cyamudongo forest ( 1 700-2400m altitude) is a western 
relict forest of 300ha which was certainly part of Nyungwe in the past, but the vegetation is 
more dense, with less openings. Nyungwe has high floral diversity, with more than 250 tree 
species including the rare african Podocarpus, and more than 100 species of orchids. A total of 
13 species of primates, representing 25% of Africa's total are found in Nyungwe, some of them 
listed as rare or endangered {Pan troglodytes, and Cercopithecus Ihoesti), or as endangered 
subspecies (Colobus angolensis ru-wenzorii). Nyungwe also holds many endangered mammals 
which are endemic to the Albertine Rift, including species of bats and squirrels. Two forest 
species of butterfly are also endemic to Nyungwe: Belearica sp., and Acraea turlini. Around 
275 bird species occur in Nyungwe, 25 endemic to the Albertine Rift mountains. After the 
Itombwe forests in eastern Zaire, Nyungwe is the most important forest for the conservation of 
montane forest birds in the region. The variety of habitat leads to a high diversity of species. 



73 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



including Gluucidhim capense alberlimim. Indicator pitmilio. Kiipeornis nifocincliis. Zooihcra 
tangangicae. Apalis ntfogularis argentea. Cryptospiza schelleyi and Bnichpti'nis graiicri. 
which are all Albertine Rift endemics and considered as \ulnerable or threatened. Logging has 
reduced the lowland forest from 1 14.000 ha in 1958 to 97.000 ha in 1979, Nyungwe also suffers 
from the exploitation of firewood, charcoal and timber for woodwork. Goldmining poses 
problems, as small alluvial gold lodes worked by local people require the cutting of forest along 
mineralized watercourses, and mining is often accompanied by poaching. Se\eral mammals, 
mainly ungulates, have suffered from overhunting. A conservation plan was established in 1984 
(MINAGRJ. 1984), with different zones, including a core area (40%) for integral protection. 
Cyamudongo forest also hosts a number of typical Albertine bird species, including Miisophaga 
rosae which is not found in Nyungwe. The forest sparrowhawk Falco eiythropus has onK' been 
recorded in Cyamudongo forest, which also hosts the chimpanzee Pan trogludytas and is 
recognized for a high diversity in butterfly species. The forest has suffered much fragmentation 
as a result of clearance for agriculture. The remaining forest is under protection b\- local public 
administration, with one guard covering all the forest. 



Virunga Mountains 

The Pare National des Volcans covers an area of 15,000ha in the Virunga Mountains, which are 
located in the north-west of Rwanda, at the border with Uganda and Zaire. The park contains 
eight pleistocene volcanic peaks belonging to the chain which forms part of the v\atershed 
between the Nile and Zaire river systems. The full altitudinal range is from 2400 to 4507m. 
including Mt. Karisimbi, one of the highest mountains in Africa (4507m). The terrain is difficult 
and broken with steep slopes, and rainfall is high, with between c.2000-2400mm per year (at 
Karisoke area). Forest is transitional with altitude. A reduced montane forest with Neoboulonia 
is found at low altitudes (2400-2500m), with bamboo forest Arimdinaria alpina at 2500-3200m. 
replaced by Haegenia-Hypericum forest on the more humid slopes in the west and the south of 
the park, up to 3500m. The park is best known for the mountain gorilla Gorilla gorilla heringei. 
a threatened subspecies endemic to the Virunga Mountains and Bwindi Forest in Uganda. Other 
threatened mammals include the elephant Loxodonta africana. and the leopard Panlhcra 
pardiis, but there have been no records since 1979. Whilst no endemic bird species are known to 
the site, the park holds many Albertine Rift endemics, including Bradyptcnis graueri. 
Francoliniis nob His. Musophaga jolmstoni. Bat is diops. Ploceus aliemis. Cryptospiza jacksoni. 
and Cryptospiza shelleyi. There is very high human pressure around the park, with 
encroachment for agriculture, illegal wood and bamboo cutting. There are also problems with 
gorilla poaching and feral dogs. The park has been reduced in area, by half from 1958 to 1973. 
Recent civil war has disturbed those conservation activities which had been established. 



74 



Africa 



SAO TOME & PRINCIPE 



The Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe is an island-nation in the Gulf of Guinea in 
the equatorial east Atlantic. 250kjns from the coast of Africa. It consists of two volcanic islands, 
reaching maximum elevations of 2024m on Sao Tome, and 948m on Principe. 

A "Montane Forest Region" is recognised on Sao Tome particularly, and to a much lesser extent 
on Principe. Occurring between 800- 1400m. it is characterised by a distinct flora resulting from 
lower minimum temperatures, higher rainfall and humidity, and reduced light le\els resulting 
from near-perpetual cloud cover. The forests are notable for their high degree of endemism. 

A single protected area (zonas ecologica) has been proposed for each island - one of 245 sq.km. 
on Sao Tome, and one of 45sq.km. on Principe (Jones and Tye. 1988: WCMC. 1996). 



References 

.lones P.J. and Tye A. 1988. A sun'ey of the avifauna of Sao Tome and Principe. ICBP Stud\' 

Report No. 24, Cambridge. 
WCMC 1 996. Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe. 



75 



Principe Island -~^ 



o 
o 




SAO TOME & PRINCIPE 



25 km 



SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE: CLODD FOREST SDMMARY Date: 29 0^ 

Procectied* 
Cloud Forest: Region Cloud Forest Sice "les'NOr 



Principe Island Principe 1°34'N/ 7°;2'E 

Sao Tom^ Pico de Sao Tome 0°16'N/ 6°35'E 



Total No. of Total No. of Total No. of CF Sites with 

CF Regions= 2 CF Sites- 2 an element of protection 

'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category 1-VI criteria 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Sao Tome and Principe 



Sao Tome and Principe 

A "Montane Forest Region" is recognised on Sao Tome, and to a much lesser extent on 
Principe. Occurring between 800- 1400m it is characterised by a distinct flora resulting from 
lower minimum temperatures, higher rainfall and humidity, and much reduced light levels as a 
result of near-perpetual cloud cover. The forest is notable for its high degree of endemism. A 
protected area (Zonas Ecologica) of 245sq.km has been proposed that would incorporate the 
higher forests. The dwarf olive ibis Bostrychia bocagei (indeterminate status, until recenth 
considered extinct) and the maroon pigeon Columha thomensis. both endemic, are recorded 
from the higher forests. There are few threats (Jones and Tye, 1988). The south-facing higher 
parts of Sao Tome receive an annual rainfall in excess of 7000mm/annum. 



78 



Atrial 



SIERRA LEONE 



Sierra Leone lies on the seaward slopes of a series of high plateaux, embracing mountainous 
regions such as the Wara Wara Mountains. Sula Mountains. Tingi Hills and Loma Mountains to 
the north and north-east. Mt. Bintimani in the Loma mountain range is one of the highest points 
of West Africa, at 1948m. The Tingi Hills and Loma Mountains are reported to support limited 
areas of moist montane forest, but information on the extent of true montane elements is 
lacking. They are known centres of plant diversity and endemism. and contain tree species such 
as Daniella thwifera, Terminalia ivorensis. Parkia bicolor. Parinari excelsa. Bridelia grandis 
and Pycnanthus angolensis. Less than 4% of the country' is presently under primar>' and 
secondary closed forest. 



References 

Commonwealth Institute (?). Sierra Leone. Commonwealth Fact Sheet. 

Davies A.G. 1987. The Gola Forest Reserves. Sierra Leone: wildlife conservation and forest 

management. lUCN Gland, Switzerland, and WCMC, Cambridge. 
Phillipson J. 1978. Wildlife conservation and management in Sierra Leone. Report prepared for 

the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Sierra Leone. 
World Bank 1993 . Ecologically sensitive sites in Afiica. Volume IV: West Afi-ica. Compiled by 

the World Conservation Monitoring Centre for The World Bank. Washington. DC, 

USA. 



79 



; SIERRA LEONE 

f 




SIERRA LEONE: CLOUD FOREST SUMMARY 



Date: 27/06/97 



Cloud Forest Region 



Cloud Forest Site 



Protected* 
Yes/No7 



Looia Hansa 
Tingi Hills 



Momt Bintunani 
Sankan Biriwa 



9°12'N/ 11°09'U 
8°57'N/ 10°47'W 



Yes 
No 



Total No. of 
CF Regions^ 2 



Total No. of 
CF Sites= 2 



Total No. of CF Sites with 
an element of protection < 1 



* 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Sierra Leone 



Loma Mansa 

The Loma Mountains contain the highest point in Sierra Leone at Ml. Bintimani (1948m). The 
threatened grey-necked picathartes Picuihartes gynmocephaliis occurs, and the mountains are a 
ioiown centre of local endemism. Larger mammals that occur include the western black and 
white colobus Colobiis polykomos. chimpanzee Pan troglodytes and golden cat Fclis uiiruiu. .\ 
national park has been proposed for the area, and extensive hunting occurs belov\ the 800m 
contour. The Loma Mountains Non-hunting Forest Reserve covers 560sq.km (Da\ies. 1987: 
Phillipson, 1978; World Bank, 1993). 



Tingi Hills 

Located fairly close to the Loma Mountains and supporting similar forest types. The peak of 
Sankan Biriwa (1715m) is contained by the Tingi Hills Forest Reserve (106sq.km). Animals 
remaining in the area include buffalo Syncenis coffer, bushbuck Tragelaphus scriptiis and 
yellow-backed duiker Cephalophus sylvicultor. The toad Bufo cristigkms is endemic to the 
Tingi Hills (World Bank. 1993). 



82 



Africa 



TANZANIA 



Tanzania is the largest country in East Africa. Most of the countr}' is located on the Central 
African Plateau. 1000-1 500m above sea level, rising from a narrow coastal strip some 15-?0km 
wide. In addition, there are a number of mountain ranges, notably those running parallel to the 
borders with Rwanda and Zambia, and along the shores of Lake Tanganyika and at the head of 
Lake Malawi. The Pare and Usambara Mountains form part of the "Eastern Arc" in the 
north-east close to the border with Kenya. Kilimanjaro, an isolated volcanic massif rising to 
5895m in the north-east of the country, is the highest peak in Africa. 

Forest covers 40% of the land area. Over 98% of this is natural miombo woodland, the 
remainder being closed tropical forest which covers less than 1% of the total land area. This 
includes scattered patches of forest on mountain slopes where the cloud forest is found, a few 
lowland forests in the mountain foothills, coastal forests and mangrove swamps. Although 
small in area, these forests are of great importance ecologically and in terms of biodiversity - 
the eastern mountain and coastal forests contain large numbers of endemics which are attracting 
increasing interest. 

The mountains are also an important water catchment area and the forest cover needs to be 
maintained to safeguard regular runoff (Bensted-Smith and Msangi. 1989). Major 
environmental problems include loss of top soil and lowering of productivity, notably in the 
high population areas, which frequently leads to deforestation and expansion of agriculture in 
other areas, even within protected areas (Mwalyosi, 1 986). 

The protected areas network currently comprises national parks. Ngorongoro Conservation 
Area, game reserves, forest reserves, and game controlled areas, which together cover nearly 
40% of Tanzania's surface area. Of the. forest reserves, just over half serve a production 
function, and the remainder serve a protection function (WD. 1991). The Udzungwa Mountains 
are in the process of being gazetted as a national park and greater protection has been proposed 
for the Uluguru and Usambara mountains. 



References 

Bensted-Smith, R. and Msangi, T.H. 1989. Report on the conservation of ecosystems and 
genetic resources. Tropical Forestry Action Plan, United Republic of Tanzania. 
Unpublished report for the Forest and Beekeeping Division of the Ministry of Lands 
Natural Resources and Tourism. 



83 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Davis, S.D., Droop. S.J.M.. Gregorson, P., Henson, L., Leon. C.J.. Villa-Lobas. J.L.. Synge. H.. 

and Zantovska, J. 1986. Plants in danger. What do ne know'? lUCN. Gland. 

Switzerland and Cambridge. U.K. Pp. 351-353. 
Hughes. R.H. and Hughes, J.S. 1991. Directory of African wetlands. lUCN. Gland. Switzerland 

and Cambridge, UK/UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya/WCMC. Cambridge. UK. Pp. 227-253. 
ITC 1989. United Republic of Tanzania: development and promotion of wildlife utilisation. 

Intemational Trade Centre Project No. URT/87/004. (Unseen) 
lUCN 1987. Action strategy for protected areas in the Afrotropical Realm. lUCN. Gland. 

Switzerland and Cambridge. UK. Pp. 47-49. 
Lovett, J. 1985. An overview of the moist forests of Tanzania. Final report of the Tanzania 

forest habitat evaluation project. WWF. Tanzania National Scientific Research Council 

Research Monographs. 
MacKinnon. J. and MacKinnon. K. 1986. Review of the protected areas system in the 

Afi-otropical Realm. lUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge, UK/UNEP. Nairobi. 

Kenya. Pp. 244-246. 
Mosha, G.T. and Thorsell, J.W. 1984. Training Protected Area Personnel: Lessons from the 

College of African Wildlife Management. In: McNeely, J. A. and Miller, K.R. (Eds), 

National parks, conservation and development: The role of protected areas in 

sustaining society. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. 
Mwalyosi, R.B.B. 1986. Tanzania, natural resources expertise profile. Conservation for 

Development Centre - Intemational Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural 

Resources, Gland, Switzerland. 7 1 pp. 
Rogers and Homewood 1 978 
Schmithiisen. F. 1986. Forest legislation in selected African countries. FAO Forestn,' Paper 65. 

Food and Agricultural Organisation. Rome. Pp. 92-94; 290-307. 
Stuart, S.N.. and Adams. R.J. 1990. Biodiversity in sub-saharan Africa and its islands: 

conservation, management and sustainable use. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland. Pp. 

204-214. 
SWARA 1989. Conservation of the Mara area. SWARA 12(2): 19. 
TWCM 1990. Conservation monitoring news. No. 1, May 1990. Tanzania Wildlife 

Conservation Monitoring. Arusha. 8 pp. 
UNEP/IUCN 1988. Coral reefs of the world Volume 2: Indian Ocean, Red Sea and Gulf 

UNEP Regional Seas Directories and Bibliographies. lUCN. Gland, Switzerland and 

Cambridge, UK/ UNEP. Nairobi. Kenya. Pp. 363-369. 
WD 1991. Elephant conservation plan - Tanzania. Wildlife Division, Ministry of Tourism, 

Natural Resources and the Environment, Dar-es-Saalam. 152 pp. 



84 



TANZANIA, UNITED REPUBLIC OF: CLOUD FOREST SUMMARY 



Date: 31/07/97 



Cloud Forest Region 



Eastern Arc Mountains 



Mahate Mountains 

North Eastern Mountains 



Cloud Forest Site 



Nguru 

Ukaguru 

Uluguru 

Usambara Mountains 

Uzungwa Mountains 

Mahale Mountains 

Hanang 

Ma I undue 

Mount Kilimanjaro 

Mount Meru 

Ngorongoro 



/ 
/ 
/ 

4°42'S/ 38°16'E 
/-SO'S/ 35°55'E 
6°10'S/ 29°50'E 
A°30'S/ 35°22'E 
3°47'S/ 35°44'E 
2°59'S/ 37°27'E 
3°15'S/ 36°45'E 
3°10'S/ 35°30'E 



Protected* 
Yes/No? 



No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

Yes 

No 

Yes 



Total No. of 
CF Regions= 3 



Total No. of 
CF Sites= 11 



Total No. of CF Sites with 
an element of protection 



* 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria 



Africa 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Tanzania 



Eastern Arc Mountains 

Running north-east, from south-west Tanzania to the east coast border with Ken>a. the Eastern 
Arc Mountains are Hnked to the North Eastern Mountains which includes Mt. Kihmanjaro. 
However in terms of cloud forest distribution the two regions appear quite separate. The Eastern 
Arcs include the Nguru, Uluguru, Ukaguru, Usambara and Uzungwa mountain ranges. 

The very dissected orography, with steep slopes, deep valleys, high summits. rock> cliffs, and 
wide range of climatic and soil conditions have resulted in a wide range of vegetation types. 
Montane forest generally occurs between 1400 and 2200m with moss covered upper montane 
forest at higher altitudes. The upper montane forest is dominated by Balthasaria schliehenii. 
Garcinia volkensii, Ocotea usambarensis, Podocarpus milanjianus. P. latifolius, P. ensiculus, 
Schefflera myhantha and S. barteri. The tree trunks are covered in mosses and epiphytes are 
common, including Stolzia viridis. Mystacidium nguruense, Lycopodiums and filmy ferns. In 
the ground flora among the many ferns, Cincinnobotrys oreophilum and Cincinnobolrys 
rananim are common. Elfin forest, commonly up to 4m tall covers the summits and ridges 
above 2000m. These trees are covered by mosses and ferns, and the ground is also covered with 
cushions of Mastigophora diclados. Sphagnum spp., Dicranoloma billarderi and Syrrhopodon 
stuhlmannii. These montane forests are especially rich in endemic herbs, and many orchids, 
including the Nguru and Uluguru endemic, Tridactyle brevifolium. Along streamlets large 
stands of the tree fern Cyathea manniana occur. In Uluguru the subendemic C.pumila and 
endemic C. fadenii and C. schliebenii are found. The Usambara Mountains support what is 
probably one of the richest biological communities in Africa, in terms of plant and animal 
species and endemic taxa. More than 276 forest tree species have been recorded, of which some 
50 are endemic or of very restricted range, such as the monotypic genera Cephalosphacni 
usambarensis, Englerodendron usambarense, and Platyplerocarpus tanganyikensis. The 
avifauna includes two threatened endemic species, the Usambara ground robin Dryocichloidcs 
montanus and the Usambara eagle owl Bubo vosseleri, and several threatened species only 
found in a few montane forests in Tanzania. In the Udzungwas. animal species of conservation 
concern include two endemic to the mountains, the Iringa red colobus Colobus hadius 
gnrdonorum. and crested mangabey Cercocebus galeritus. There are eight threatened bird 
species. Three, Mrs Moreau's warbler Bathmocercus winifredae, banded green sunbird 
Anihreptes rubitorques and the Tanzanian mountain weaver Ploceus nicolli are endemic to a 
few forests in eastern Tanzania. Another four have very limited distributions, the dappled 
mountain robin Modulalrix oroslruthus. Iringa ground robin Dryocichloidcs lowei. Amani 
sunbird Anthreptes paUidigaster and Swynnerton's forest robin Pogonocichla swynnerloni, the 
subspecies rodgersi of the latter being endemic to the Uzungwas. One species, the rufous- 
winged sunbird Neclarinia rufipennis is endemic to the Uzungwas, being only recently 



87 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



discovered in the Mwanihana Forest (Stuart and Jensen. 1981). There are also many endemic 
species of invertebrate. The forests in this region serve a critical watershed protection role, 
which is helped by a thick covering of bryophytes on the forest floor in man\' areas. This is 
particularly important as many large scale commercial agricultural developments are dependent 
on a reliable source of water, and hydro-electric schemes are planned. In Kanga FR. the forests 
are relatively undisturbed in comparison to the nearby Nguru South FR. probabh' due to 
traditional cultural values which restrict access. The bark of Entandrophragmu excelsiim and 
Myrica salicifolia trees is harvested for medicinal purposes. Current pressures on the forests 
include logging and use by the local population for firewood and building poles. 



Mahale Mountains 

Located near Gombe, on the western side of the country close to the border with Zaire, the 
Mahale Mountains run in a chain from north-north-west to south-south-east for some 50km 
with Mt. Nkungwe, the highest peak at 2462m. The western slopes of the main ridge drop 
precipitously with many ravines running into the lake, whilst hilly country (below 1700m) 
extends to the east of the main ridge. 

There are three major vegetation types: Kasoge Forest (780m at lake level to 1300m) which is a 
well developed lowland forest on the western slope of the Mahale Mountains; wet and more 
verdant forest from 1 500-2400m which comprises a mosaic of montane forest, grassland and 
alpine bamboo bush; and miombo forest on the eastern slopes and north and south of the 
Kasoge Forest, covering some 75% of the park area. 

The Mahale Mountain National Park was established in 1985. and contains 55 recorded 
mammal species, with nine primates, including a large population of chimpanzee Pcm 
troglodytes. The 120 recorded bird species include: crested malimbe Malimbus rubricollis and 
white-spotted pygmy crake Coturnicops pulchra. 



North Eastern Mountains 

This group of mountains cover a large area from north-central Tanzania up to Mt. Kilimanjaro, 
which lies on the border with Kenya. Forest occurs between 1980m and 3300m with montane 
and upper montane forest tending to lie on the wetter southern, eastern and northern slopes, and 
dry montane forest on the western slopes. Above the forest, grassland and moorland is found 
above about 2500m. 

Patches of cloud forest are found within the montane and upper montane forests at Hanang, 
Malundwe, Ngorongoro, Nou, and on Mounts Mem and Kilimanjaro. The montane forests 
commonly include Albizia gummifera, Podocarpus sp., and Prunus africana, which is also 



88 



Africa 



found in the upper montane zone along with Cassipourea malosana. Ilex niiiis. and Ocoica 
usambarensis. On KiHmanjaro, the wetter southern slopes are dominated b\ PoJocarpus spp. 
and camphorwood Ocolea usambarensis with an understory of ferns such as tree fems Cyuthea 
spp. and the long-spiked Lobelia gibberoa. Mammal species found above the treeline but which 
also use the montane forest habitat include the grey duiker Sylvicapra grimmia. red duiker 
Cephalophiis natalensis and elephant. On Kilimanjaro, three species of primate are found 
within the montane forests, the blue monkey Cercopithecus mitis, black and white colobus 
Colobus polykomos abyssinicus. and Galago crassicaudatus. Sunbirds in the highland forest 
around Ngorongoro include the golden winged sunbird Neclarinia reichenowi and eastern 
double collared sunbird N. mediochs. The butterfly Papilio sjoestedti. sometimes known as the 
Kilimanjaro swallowtail, flies in the montane forests of Mt. Meru, Mt. Kilimanjaro and 
Ngorongoro. 

The upland forests perform a critical watershed fiinction, protecting the catchments of many 
rivers. Meru is the most important catchment reserve in the country as it supplies water to 
Arusha town and the densely populated surrounding area. Although most of the cloud forest is 
contained in Forest Reserves, grazing and fires set by hunters and beekeepers in the subalpine 
heath cause extensive damage. Human impact is relatively limited, although there has been 
serious encroachment for cultivation in some areas, and intensive pit sawing for Loliondo is 
carried out in some areas. Cutting of trees for firewood is another potential threat. 



89 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



UGANDA 



Uganda is a landlocked country covering about 236.000 sq.km. In the west of the countr> the 
landscape is dominated by the rift valley and its associated mountains and lakes, and in the east 
the international border with Kenya follows a line of raised land associated with the large 
Miocene volcanoes of Mount Elgon (Howard, 1988). 

Ecologically, Uganda is very diverse, with a range of altitude from 600m in the bottom of the 
rift valley, to over 5000m at the top of the Rwenzori, Africa's third highest mountain range. 
Seven of mainland Africa's 18 phytochoria (plant kingdoms) are represented in Uganda. 

Cloud forests occur along the mountains on the western border with Zaire and Rwanda, and on 
Mount Elgon which is on the eastem border of the country with Kenya. The cloud or moist 
montane forest generally lies between altitudes of 2000 and 3500m, although there is 
considerable variation. 

Uganda is a predominantly agricultural nation, and there is great pressure on these forests along 
with other forest areas. At the turn of the century, forests covered approximately 12.7% of the 
country's total area. Today this figure is thought to be around 3%, with very little remaining 
outside government forest reserves (Hamilton, 1984; Struhsaker, 1987). The principal . forest 
reserves were formally gazetted in 1932. These reserves are distributed such that 50% is in 
savanna woodland and forest plantation, 40% is in tropical high forest and 10% in montane 
catchment areas (lUCN, 1990). 

It has been estimated that only about 50% of forested land within reserves remains essentially 
undisturbed (lUCN, 1990). The forests are under particular pressure from agricultural 
encroachment and settlement, illegal or unmanaged exploitation of timber and charcoal, an 
ever-increasing fuel wood demand, cattle grazing, pollution, and uncontrolled burning. National 
parks and wildlife sector reserves have been threatened by agricultural encroachment, illegal 
poaching and a negative public attitude to wildlife conservation. These problems were 
compounded by political and economic instability in the 1970s and 1980s (Anon., n.d.; Corson 
and Kux, 1982; Okua, I99I; Pomeroy, 1990; Struhsaker, 1987). 



90 



Africa 



References 

Anon, (n.d.) Conservation of wildlife outside the national parks. Uganda. 1 1 pp. 

Butynski. T.M. 1984. Ecological survey of the Impenetrable (Bvvindi) Forest. Uganda, and 

Recommendations for its conservation and management. Unpublished report to the 

Uganda Government. 
Corson, J. and Kux, M. 1982. MAB draft environmental profile - Uganda. Department of State. 

Washington, DC. 258 pp. 
Hamilton, A. 1969. The vegetation of south-west Kigezi. Uganda J. 33: 175-99. 
Hamilton, A.C. 1984. Deforestation in Uganda. Oxford University Press. Uganda. (Unseen) 
Hamilton, A.C. and Perrott, R.A. 1981. A study of altitudinal vegetation in the montane forest 

beh of Mt. Elgon, Kenya/Uganda. Vegetatio 45: 107-125. 
Harcourt, A.H. 1979. Conservation of the Bwindi Forest Reserve and its Gorillas, S.W. Uganda. 

WWF/IUCN Project 1577 Report. 
Harcourt, A.H. 1980. Can Uganda's Gorillas Survive? A survey of the Bwindi Forest Reserve. 

Biological Conservation 19: 269-282. 
Howard, P.C. 1988. Nature conservation in Uganda's tropical forest reserves. Kampala, Uganda. 

Unpublished draft. 302 pp. 
lUCN/MEP 1986. Uganda natural resources datasets - a preliminary review. lUCN, Nairobi, 

Kenya and Ministry of Environment Protection, Uganda. Pp. 2-13. 
lUCN. 1990. lUCN Uganda country programme workshop - working group background 

papers. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 
Keith, S., Twomey, A.. Friedmann, H. and Williams, J. 1969. The Avifauna of the Impenetrable 

Forest, Uganda. Amer. Mus. Novit. 2389. 
Malpas. R. 1980. Wildlife in Uganda 1980 - A Survey. A Report to the Minister of Tourism and 

Wildlife, Uganda. 
Okua, M. 1991. The management of protected areas under the Uganda Game Department. A 

paper presented to the preparatory session for the World Congress on National Parks 

and Protected Areas. Amboseli National Park, Kenya, 9-16 July. 6 pp. 
Pomeroy, D.E. (Ed.). 1990. Forum II - conservation of biodiversity in Uganda. Proceedings of 

the Second Conservation Forum. 8-10 February. Kabarole District, Uganda. 63 pp. 
Struhsaker, T.T. 1987. Forestry issues and conservation in Uganda. Biological Conservation 39: 

209-234. 
Stuart, S.N. and Adams. R.J. 1990. Biodiversity in Sub-saharan Africa and its islands: 

conservation, management and sustainable use. Occassional Paper No. 6. lUCN 

Species Survival Commission, Gland, Switzerland. Pp. 218-223. 



91 



UGANDA: CLOUD FOREST SUMMARY 



Date: 27/06/97 



Cloud Forest Region 



Cloud Forest Site 



Protected* 
Yes/No7 



Bwindi Forest 
Mgahinga Forest 
Mount Elgon Forest 
Rwenzori Mountains 



Buindi Forest 
Mgahinga Forest 
Mount Elgon Forest 
Rwenzori Mountains 



r02'S/ 29°42'E 

/ 
nS'N/ 34°33'E 
OMS'N/ 29°57'E 



Yes 
No 
Yes 
Yes 



Total No. of 
CF Regions: 4 



Total No. of 
CF Sites= 4 



Total No. of CF Sites with 
an element of protection - 3 



* 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Uganda 



Bwindi Forest 

Bwindi (Impenetrable) Forest is located in south-west Uganda near the border \\ ith Zaire, and 
covers an area of 31,000ha. The reserve is very steep, hilly countr\side with an altitudinal range 
from 1400 to 2400m. The forest includes a wide variety of vegetation types which can be 
broadly classified as medium altitude moist evergreen forest and high altitude forest. Important 
constituents are Prunus africana, Newfonia buchananii. Syphonia globulifera. Chrysophylhim 
spp., Podocarpus spp. and Strombosia cheffleria. The vegetation is more fully described in 
Hamilton 1969. The fauna is one of the richest communities in East Africa. One-third of the 
world's population of the mountain gorilla Gorilla gorilla berengei (c.400) exists here. There 
are six other species of diurnal primate recorded, including chimpanzee Pan troglodytes, and 
three nocturnal primates. Several threatened birds with limited ranges are among the diverse 
avifauna. These include the African green broadbill Pseudocalyptomena graiieri. Grauer's 
swamp warbler Bradypterus graueri, and Chapin's flycatcher Muscicapa lendu. A threatened 
butterfly species, the cream-banded swallowtail Papilio leucotaenia. is also found in this 
reserve. Together with some remnant lowland forest outside the boundary, the montane forest in 
this reserve constitutes an important water catchment area for many rivers supplying the 
agricultural land of the surrounding region. Where trees are cleared the soils are ven.' susceptible 
to erosion, due to the steepness of the slopes. However the forest also lies in one of the country's 
most densely populated areas, and the main threats to this forest are posed by the hunting of its 
large mammals, and uncontrolled timber cutting. Fortunately these threats have been moderated 
due to the Ugandan Government's commitment to the protection of this forest (Howard. 1988). 



Mgahinga Forest 

Mgahinga forest is found on the mountain range which forms the Gorilla Game Reserve (or 
Kigezi Gorilla Game Reserve) and is located in the extreme south-west comer of Uganda on the 
borders with Zaire and Rwanda. Here the altitude ranges varies from 2700 to 4127m including 
parts of three volcanic mountains Muhavura. Mgahinga, and Sabinio. The alpine summit areas 
are dominated by Hypericum spp. and dwarf heaths which merge into broadleaved montane 
forest and bamboo Arundinaria alpina. The forest is rich in lichens and mosses. On the lower 
slopes is a high altitude type of savanna woodland. The reserve was established to protect the 
chimpanzee Pan troglodytes and the mountain gorilla Gorilla gorilla berengei. Other mammals 
include: the distinctive golden monkey Cercopitheciis mitis kandti (a rare subspecies of the 
diademed monkey), leopard Panthera pardus, and elephant Loxodonta africana. The abundant 
bird life includes the Ruwenzori turaco Taiiraco Johnstoni. and the yellow-billed barbet 
Trachyphonus purpuratus. The threatened butterfly species Papilio leucotaenia may also 



94 



Africa 



inhabit the resei^e. There is severe disturbance from agricuhural and pastoral activities and 
poaching. The area seems to be less well protected than neighbouring protected areas in Zaire 
and Rwanda. There are about 400 gorillas in this whole region, but only one group is found in 
the Ugandan sector and may have disappeared recently. 



Mount Elgon Forest 

Located on the border between Uganda and Kenya with portions of its slopes in botii countries. 
Mount Elgon is a solitary extinct volcano, with one of the largest craters in the world. 8km 
across. The altitude varies from 1460m to 4320m at the rim of the crater. Four broad classes of 
vegetation occupy different altitudinal zones on Mount Elgon: I) a community of mixed 
montane forest below 2500m, 2) a broad belt of bamboo and low canopy montane (Hagenea- 
Rapanea) forest between 2400m and 3000m, 3) a zone of high montane forest between 3000m 
and 3500m, a high moorland community above 3500m (Hamilton and Perrott, 1981). The 
wetter southern and western slopes of the mountain support a montane forest community 
dominated by species such as Prunus africana, Aningeria adolfifriedericii, and Oka 
welwitschii, whilst the drier north-east supports a coniferous forest dominated by Podocarpiis 
gracilior. Juniperus proccra, and Ejebergia capensis, with an understorey of Ilex mitis. Oka sp. 
and Tecka nobilis. The most important areas of Mount Elgon for plant species conservation lie 
in the high montane heath and moorland zones. Most of the animal species found here are 
widely distributed in suitable montane habitats throughout East Africa, but in many cases 
Mount Elgon represents the western range limits of species or races that occur in the highlands 
of Kenya and northern Tanzania, meaning that it has considerable importance in terms of 
conservation, particularly for bird species. The mountain is the only site record for Francolinus 
jacksoni in Uganda, and Colombo delegroguei, Tauraco hartlaubi and Nectarinia tacazze are 
restricted to Elgon and a few other mountains along the eastern border. The African elephant 
Loxodonta afiicana and the leopard Panthera pardus have also been recorded. The area is 
officially protected by the Mount Elgon Forest Reserve in Uganda and Mount Elgon National 
Park in Kenya which together cover approximately 90.000ha. Both sides of the mountain are 
important for water catchment protection, and to maintain viable populations of many of the ' 
larger and rare species such as elephant and leopard. However, a high human density in the 
lands bordering the reserve means that encroachment is a constant pressure. Poaching activities 
and timber har\'esting also pose significant threats. Jwiipenis procera. an important timber tree 
is considered to be endangered in this area (Howard, 1 988). 



95 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



ZAIRE 



The Republic of Zaire extends from a narrow (40km) Atlantic seaboard in the west to the lake 
system of the western branch of the Rift Valley in the east. The high mountain ranges are 
restricted to the eastern border with Zambia and Uganda. Along the entire mountain chain, a 
total of more than 4275,000ha lies above 1500m. The highest peak. Margherita (51 19m) lies in 
the Ruwenzori Range on the Uganda border around which an area of 35.000ha lies abo\e 
3000m. 

Tropical rain forests cover 1 .25 million sq.km (52% of the country), which constitutes almost 
half of the tropical rain forests of Africa (Mankoto ma Mabaelele. 1987). Cloud forest is found 
in the east, where a mosaic of montane forest and secondary grassland is interspersed with 
smaller areas of submontane and transitional rain forest (lUCN, 1985). The eastern montane 
forest covers an area of approximately 54,100sq.km (Doumenge, 1990) and serves an important 
watershed protection role, as more than 90% of the country drains into the Zai're River basin. 

Large areas of primary moist forest remain intact, as in general, forest exploitation is moderate. 
However, there is increased exploitation in the more highly populated and accessible areas 
(Doumenge, 1990), which include the eastern mountain range. The transitional forests have 
been largely cleared for agricultural use (Kasali, n.d.; von Richter et al. 1990). 

Forests are well represented in the country's protected area system, although a study by 
Doumenge (lUCN, 1990) identified a number of unprotected forest sites of critical importance 
for conservation of biological diversity. However, despite official protection forests suffer 
throughout from encroachment by local villagers, with a lack of alternative economic means 
and little involvement in reserve management (Kasali, n.d.). Poaching is particularly severe 
even within some protected areas and management of the national parks varies from a 
reasonably high level to minimal (lUCN, 1 990, De Richter et al, 1 99). 



References 

Anon. (n.d.). Integrated nature conser\'ation in Zai're. Manuscript submitted to Parks. 5 pp. 

Bourliere and Verschuren, J. 1972. Exploration du Pare national des Vinmga. 

Catterall M.J. 1992. Conservation priorities for the Albertine Rift Endemic Area. Msc. Report, 

Wye College, University of London. 
Collar, N.J. & S.N. Stuart 1988. Key Forests for Threatened Birds in Africa. International 

Council for Bird Preservation. Monograph No. 3. 



96 



Africa 



Doumenge, C. 1990. La Conservation des Ecosyslemcs Foresiiers dii Zaire. lUCN. Gland. 

Suisse and Cambridge, UK. 242pp. 
Goodaii, A.G. 1974. Studies on the ecology of the mountain gorilla of the Mt Kahuzi-Biega 

region (Zaire) and comparisons with the mountain gorillas of the Virunga Volcanoes. 

Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. University of Liverpool. 
lUCN/WWF 1985. Rapport d'une mission au Zaire et Rwanda. lUCN/WWF. Gland. 

Switzerland. 
Marius. C. 1972-3. Vegetation maps of Kahuzi-Biega. 
Michel. F.C. and Kabemba. A. 1986. Enquete sur la chasse aux alentours du pare de 

Kahuzi-biega (Zaire). La Lettre du Reseau Arbres Tropicaux. April. 20 pp. 
OBICO. 1996. Biodiversite et Conservation dans la zone occidentale du Lac Kivu (est du 

Zaire). Rapport de travail. Section OBICO-Zaire. 
Prigogine. A. 1971. Les Oiseaux de I'ltombwe et de son hinterland. Volume 1. Annals of the 

Museum Royal d'Afrique centrale. 8°. Sci. Zool. 185-298. 
Prigogine. A. 1985. Conservation of the Avifauna of the forests of the Albertine Rift. In 

Conservation of Tropical Birds, eds. A.W. Diamond and T.E. Lovejoy 277-295. 

International Council for Bird Preservation. Cambridge, Technical Publication. N° 4. 
Spinage, C.A. (1972). The Ecology and Problems of the Volcano National Park. Rwanda. 

Biological Conset vat ion 4: 194-204. 
Verschuren. J. 1988. Problemes scientifiques et techniques au pare national des Virunga 

(Zaire). Institut Zai'rois pour la Conservation de la Nature/Administration Generale 

Beige pour la Cooperation au Developpement. 135 pp. 



97 



500 km 




ZAIRE: CLOUD FOREST SUMMARY 



Date: ZT/Ob/'^l 



Cloud Forest Region 



Cloud Forest Site 



Protected* 
Yes/No? 



ItcntMe Mountains 
Kabobo Mountain 
Kahuzi-Biega Mountains 
Kivu 



Marungu Highlands 
V i rungas/Rwenzor i s 



Itont>we Mountains 

Kabobo Mountain 

Kahuzi-Biega Mountains 

Bushenyi Forest 

Mituiba 

Shushu 

Marungu Highlands 

Mount Tshiaberimu 

Ruenzori Mountains 

Virunga Volcanoes 



3°25'S/ 
5°08'S/ 
2°03'S/ 
2°21'S/ 
r57'S/ 
2°07'S/ 
7»30>S/ 
OHIO'S/ 
O-SO'N/ 
r28'S/ 



28°35'E 
29»03'E 
28°50'E 
28*57 'E 
28*55 ■£ 
29"'05'E 
29*59 'E 
29*25 'E 
29°50'E 
29"'10'E 



No 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

No 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 



Total No. of 
CF Regions= 6 



Total No. of 
CF Sites= 10 



Total No. of CF Sites with 
an element of protection = 5 



• 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Zaire 



Itombwe Mountains 

The Itombwe Mountain range comprise a large number of mountains oriented north-soutli. in 
south-western Zaire. Most reach above 2000m, and altitude ranges from 1500m to 3475m. A 
montane lake (Lake Lungwe) is located in the north at 2700m. The range represents the largets 
area above 2500m altitude in the Central African mountains, and montane marshes ha\e 
developed over a large area. There is transition forest at 1200- 1500m, with montane forest 
dominated by Parinari sp. Carapa sp. Homaliiim sp. Syzyghim sp. Fagara uff. i?uiei/iicilis. 
Scipium ellipticum. Ocotea michelsonii. Croton megalocarpus from 1800m to 2200m and b\ 
Hirtella sp. Syzygium sp. Parinari sp. Symphonia sp. Olea hoschtelteri, Crysophylliim sp. 
Ficalhoa laiirifolia above 2000m. The forest holds a rich fauna, including Gorilla gorilla 
graueri and Afropavo congensis. Among 36 endemic species occuring in the Central African 
Highlands, 32 are found in Itombwe. These mountains have the greatest bird diversity among 
all the afromontane forests, including 2 local endemics Phodilus prigoginei, recently recorded 
after only one specimen in 1954 (Prigogine 1954) and Schoutedenepiis schouledcni. There is 
also high diversity in Amphibians including Hyperolins caslaneus consellatiis. H. leleiipi. 
Chrysobatrachus cupreonites, and Rana sp. which are endemic to Itombwe. The site is state 
proprety but is not offically protected despite repeated recommendations in the past. The long- 
term survival of Itombwe mountains is uncertain, as there is very high pressure from mining and 
grazing, which is affecting the montane and bamboo forest. 



Kabobo Mountain 

An isolated peak to the west of the northern half of Lake Tanganyika in south-eastern Zaire, 
with altitudinal ranges from 1500m to 2700m. The site holds a rich avifauna, with around 60 
species recorded, including Apalis kaboboemis. which is endemic to the forest, Tiinlus 
tanganjicae and Liopliliis riifocinclus. The forest has no official protection despite a number of 
recommendations for its conservation (Prigogine 1985). 



Kahuzi-Biega Mountains 

The Kahuzi-Biega Mountains are located in Eastern Zaire, 50km west of the town of Bukavu 
near the Rwanda and Burundi borders. The area takes its name from two extinct volcanoes, and 
is part of the Pare National de Kahuzi-Biega (total area, 600,000ha). Altitude ranges from 
1 800m to 3400m. with annual maximum temperatures df 1 8°C and minimum temperatures of 
about 10.4°C. Mean annual rainfall is 1800mm with wide variation, and humiditv varies 



100 



Africa 



between 50% and 85%. Two-thirds of the mountain forest is dense primar>' forest with 
Podocarpus and Prunus spp. intermixed with bamboo, especially at higher altitudes in upper 
montane or cloud forest areas. Some patches of more open vegetation occur at lower altitudes. 
The remaining area is mainly mesophytic woodland including Hagenia trees and areas of 
Cypenis swamp and peatbog. The park was established to protect 200-300 mountain gorilla 
Gorilla gorilla graueri occuring mainly in the forests at 2IOOm-2400m. but also in the lower 
rain forest. The mosaic' of biot)'pes makes the area an excellent gorilla habitat. Other primates 
include chimpanzee Pan troglodytes, owl-faced monkey Cercopithecus hamlyni. including 
black and white colobus monkey Colobus guereza and red colobus C badius. Other mammals 
include the elephant Loxodonta africana, forest hog Hylochoerus meinertzhageni and man\' 
antelope and duiker. Avifauna include the endemic Rockefeller's sunbird Neciarinia 
rockefelleri, African green broadbill Pseudocalyptomena graueri and Grauer's swamp warbler 
Bradypterus graueri. The National Park was accepted as a World Heritage site in 1 980. as was 
the Virungas in 1979. A system of four zones has been proposed (Anon., 1989). comprising 
administration etc.. tourism, extensive use and strict conservation, and there is a forested buffer 
zone. Cloud forest is therefore subject to relatively low pressure. Agricultural activities, 
especially tea-growing, occur on the periphery and, in the past, slash and bum rotational 
agriculture was practised throughout the area. Poaching affects most species and the road 
SN'stem has deteriorated to the point where it is not possible for guards to adequately patrol the 
park. Recent economic problems in Zaire have resulted in a marked decrease in the 
effectiveness of management, and thus a decline in tourism, which had previously provided a 
cash flow for the region. There are a number of villages in the buffer zone and there is regular 
hunting of game species both for consumption and for sale, which has threatened species 
populations both in surrounding the park and within it. 



Kivu 

Small areas of montane forest are found in a number of locations around Lake Kivu in the east 
of the country, close to the border with Rwanda. These include Bushenyi forest reserve on Kivu 
Island. Shushu forest which is on two small islands off Idjwi Island in Lake Kivu, and 
fragmented transition forests between Kahuzi-Biega and Masisi on the western edge of Lake 
Kivu. In Bushenyi altitude ranges from 1460m (lake level) to 2260m, with sub-montane forest 
up to 1 700m, and a montane forest above. In Shushu altitude ranges from 1 460m to 1 500m with 
a montane forest dominated by Neoboutonia buchananii. isolated Albizzia grandibracteata. and 
Ficus spp. The forest in Mitumba is dominated by Lebrunia bushaie and important for the 
conservation of some Albetine Rift endemics including Pseudocalyptonema graueri. Nectarinia 
rockefellerii, Columba albinucha. Indicator pumilio, Phyllastrephus lorenzi, Turdus 
langanyicae, Lioptilus chapini. Terpsiphone bedfordi. Cryptospiza shelleyi. Bushenyi has been 
under legal protection since 1939, Shusuhu is privately managed and Mitumba has no 
protection. However, much of the origmal forest has been cleared in all three cases, and the 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



remaining forest is important for maintenance of ecological processes and for the conser\ ation 
of two species endemic to the islands, Apalis argentea eidos, and Cercopithecus miiis 
schoutedeni. Mitumba is also under pressure from poaching. 



Marungu Highlands 

The extensive area of the Marungu lies to the west of the southern half of Lake Tanganyika in 
Eastern Zaire. The area consists of two main land masses separated by the low-lying Mulobozi 
river, the smaller northern section (also called the Malimba mountains) rising to c. 2100m. and 
the larger southern section, reaching c. 2460m. Grassland and scrub are the major habitats but 
there is also dense forest including Parinari excelsa, Teclea nobilis, Polyxias fulva. Ficiis 
storthophylla and Turraea holstii in ravines, and more importantly, a narrow riparian forest, 
with Syzygium cordatum, Ficalhoa lauhfolia and Ilex mitis along streams. The Marungu 
Highlands are a centre of endemism for plants, with over 300 endemics species (lUCN 1985). 
The Marungu Sunbird Nectarinia prigoginei is restricted to the riparian forest. The area is not 
protected although the forests bordering the Mulobozi and Lufliko rivers have been proposed as 
conservation belts (Prigogine 1985), as they are under severe threat from timber-felling and 
from erosion of stream banks by cattle. 



Virungas/Rwenzoris 

Virunga National Park covers a large area in North-east Zaire on the border with Uganda and 
Rwanda. It includes the Rwenzori mountains, an extremely steep and rugged mountain range, 
where the altitude ranges from 1700m up to Africa's third highest mountain, Margharita at 
5119m, and mountain peaks are permanently snow covered. The southern area of the park 
belongs to the Virunga Volcanoes complex and contains two active peaks: Nyamuragira and 
Nyiragongo. The considerable altitudinal range results in marked climatic variations which 
affect the overall biological and geographical diversity of habitats. Cloud forest is found in the 
Rwenzoris. the Virunga Volcanoes and on Mount Tshiaberimu to the west of Lake Edward. The ■ 
montane forest is composed of bamboo and Hagenia forest on the mountain slopes including 
some areas of very dense moist forest, with Neobontonia macrocalyx forest on the lava plains. 
Alpine heath vegetation dominates about 3500m consisting of Podocarpus milunjiamis and 
Hagenia abyssinica with alpine forests of Dendrosenecio and giant Lobelia. Above 4300m 
there is sparse vegetation, mainly lichens and spermatophyta. Mount Tshiaberimu (Tshabirimu) 
is a high altitude forest dominated by bamboo. With regard to fauna, whilst none of the recorded 
species are endemic to this area, there are a number of endemic subspecies. In Rwenzori, these 
include the colobus monkey Colobus angolensis ntwenzorii, Rwenzori hyrax Dendroyrax 
arboreus ntwenzorii. and the Rwenzori leopard Panthera pardus ruwenzorii. In addition many 
Albertine Rift endemics occur. Other species of interest include elephant Loxodonta africana. 



102 



Africci 



chimpanzee Pan troglodytes. I'hoest monkey Cercopithecus Ihoesti. with gorilla Gorilla gorilla 
herengei on the slopes of the Virunga mountains (about 140 were recorded in the Zaire 
Virungas in 1980 and 280 in 1986 (Verschuren. 1988)). Bird species include Nahan's francolin 
Francolinus nahani, forest ground thrush Turdus oberlaenderi, leopard bamboo warbler 
Bradvpterus alfredi and Shelley's crimsonwing Cryptospiza shellcyi. The mountains of the 
Virunga National Park belong to a network of protected areas including Rwenzori Forest 
Reserve (99,600ha), Rwenzori National Park (197.800ha) and Biosphere Reser\'e (220.000ha). 
Kigezi Game Reserve (32.830ha), Kyambura Game Reserve (15.700ha), and Kibale Forest 
Corridor Game Reserve (33.910ha). It is an important trans-boundary conservation area, as 
about 50km of international boundary runs through the centre of the massif The main threat to 
the integrity of the forest is posed by high levels of hunting which are having a severe impact on 
many of the larger mammals. Poaching of elephant and gorilla has been almost completely 
stopped, although there remains localised poaching of hippopotamous, buffalo and certain 
antelopes (Verschuren, 1988). There are also localised problems associated with tourist 
activities such as litter, sanitation, and demand for firewood (Howard 1988) and clearance of 
forest for agricultural land. The recent civil war in Rwanda has put pressure on the area due to a 
high demand for firewood and increased poaching. 



103 




PART TWO 

LATIN AMERICA 
CENTRAL 

Belize 
Costa Rica 
El Salvador 
Guatemala 

Mexico 
Panama 



Latin America : Central 



BELIZE 



The mountains of Belize are located in the largely forested Maya Mountain range, which 
occupies about half of the land area of Belize. The highest known point is Victoria Peak at 
1120m. One of the forest types known to occur in the Maya Mountains is lower montane 
forest (International travel map productions, 1992; Zisman, 1996). 



References 

Faust, B. 1995. Help save a Belize cloud forest and help locals farm sustainably. Unpubl. 

email to WCMC. 
International travel map productions. 1992, Traveller's reference map of Belize. 

International travel map productions, Canada. 
Zisman, S. 1996. The directory of Belizean protected areas and sites of nature conservation 

interest. Second Edition. NARMAP. pp.186. 



107 



BELIZE: CLOUD FOREST SUMMARY 



Date: 27/06/97 



Cloud Forest Region 



Cloud Forest Site 



Protected* 
Ye»/No? 



Maya Mountains 



Slate Creek Preserve 



17°07'M/ 88'58'U 



Yes 



Total No. of 
CF Regions^ 1 



Total No. of 
CF Sites^ 1 



Total No. of CF Sites with 
an element of protection « 1 



* 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Belize 



Maya Mountains 

Currently, one cloud forest site has been reported in the Maya Mountains. Specifically, on the 
pine ridge Caracol Road in Cayo. It is described as a newly formed private forest preserve 
(364ha) of karst cloud forest, which is said to contain Mayan ruins as well as endangered 
wildlife. Pressures mentioned include fires started by refugee farmers. No further details are 
known for this site (Faust, 1995). 



110 



Latin America : Central 



COSTA RICA 



Known cloud forest sites are located in four mountain ranges. From north to south they are: 
Guanacaste Cordillera, Tilaran Cordillera, Cordillera Central and Cordillera de Talamanca. 
One of the most famous cloud forest sites in the world is found in Tilaran Cordillera - the 
Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve. Cloud forest sites in Costa Rica occur between 
approximately 1000m and 3000m. Many of the sites are protected. This does not, however, 
make them immune to certain pressures, in particular deforestation for agriculture and pasture 
land. 



References 

Boza, M.A. 1986. Parques Nationales: Costa Rica: National Parks. Fundacion de Parques 

Nacionales, Costa Rica. 95pp. 
Boza, M.A. & Mendoza, R. 1981. The national parks of Costa Rica. INCAFO, Madrid. 

310pp. 
Echeverria, J., Hanarahan, M. & Solorzano, R. 1995. Valuation of nonpriced amenities 

provided by the biological resources. Ecological Economics 13:43-52. 
Harcourt, C.S. & Sayer, J. A. (Eds.). 1996. The conservation atlas of tropical forests. 

lUCN, Gland & WCMC, Cambridge. Simon & Schuster, New York, pp.335. 
lUCN . 1 982 . lUCN directory of neotropical protected areas. Tycooly International 

Publishing Ltd., Dublin, pp.436. 
Janzen, D.H. 1986. Guanacaste National Park: tropical, ecological and cultural 

restoration. Editorial Universidad Estatal a Distancia, San Jose. 103pp. 
Kappelle, M. & Juarez, M.E. 1995(a). The Los Santos Forest Reserve: a buffer zone vital 

for the Costa Rican La Amistrad Biosphere Reserve. Environmental Conservation 

21:166-169. 
Kappelle, M. & Juarez, M.E. 1995(b). Agroecological zonation along an altitudinal 

gradient in the montane belt of the Los Santos Forest Reserve in Costa Rica. 

Mountain Research and Development 15:19-37. 
Lawton, R. & Dryer, V. 1980. The vegetation of the Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve. 

Brenesia 18:101-116. 
Lober, D.J. 1992. Using forest guards to protect a biological Reserve in Costa Rica: one 

step towards linking parks to people. Journal of Environmental Planning and 

Management 35 : 1 7-41 . 
Menkhaus, S. & Lober, D.J. 1996. International ecotourism and the valuation of tropical 

rain-forests. Journal of Environmental Management 47: 1-10. 



Ill 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



National Park Service Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock and FAO. 1974. Plan maestro 

para la proteccion y uso parque nacional volcan poas. Documento Tecnico de Trabajo 

No. 10 (Proyecto FAO-RLAT/TF 199). 
Pound, J. A. 1991. The secret Sahara. BBC Wildlife June. 
Pound, J. A. & Crump, M.L. 1994. Amphibian declines and climate disturbance - the case 

of a the golden toad and the harlequin frog. Consen: Biol. 8:72-85. 
Tobias, D. & Mendelsohn, R. 1991. Valuing ecotourism in a 

tropical rain-forest reserve. Ambio 20:91-93. 



112 



COSTA RICA: CLOUD FOREST SUMMARY 



Cloud Forest Region 



Cordillera Central 



Cordillera de Talamanca 



Cordillera de Tilarin 
Guanacaste Cordillera 



Cloud Forest Site 



Braulio Carrillo 

Irazu Volcano 

VolcAn Pods 

Chirrip6 

Genesis II Cloud Forest Preserve 

La Anistad 

Los Santos 

Rfo Hacho 

Tapantf 

Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve 

Santa Elena Cloud Forest Reserve 

Volcdn Cacao 

Volc&n Orosi 

Volcdn Rinc6n de la Vieja 





Date: 27/06/9- 




Protected* 




Yes/Mo7 


10°10'N/ 84'00'U 


Yes 


9''59'N/ 83'52'U 


No 


10°12'M/ 84'U'W 


Yes 


9°29'M/ a3°29'U 


Yes 


9''42'M/ 83''54'W 


No 


9"28'N/ 83°18'W 


Yes 


9''35'N/ 83°53'U 


Yes 


9''35'M/ aS'SZ'U 


Yes 


9°43'M/ a3°47'W 


Yes 


lO'l/'N/ B4*4a'U 


Yes 


/ 


No 


10°56'N/0a5"'27'U 


Yes 


/ 


Yes 


10°48'N/ 85°23'W 


No 



^ 



Total No. of 
CF Regions: 4 



Total No. of 
CF Sites= 14 



Total No. of CF Sites with 
an element of protection > 14 



• 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria 



Latin America : Central 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Costa Rica 



Cordillera Central 

The Cordillera Central comprises tiiree main areas of montane forest. Two of these areas are 
included in the National Parks of Braulio Carrillo and Volcan Poas. The third locality 
includes the small protected area of Irazu Volcano, which is the highest mountain in the 
Cordillera Central (3432m). The flora and fauna of the upper part of the Irazu Volcano have 
suffered considerable alterations due to volcanic eruptions and to deforestation to create cattle 
pasture land and to cultivate potatoes. Though wildlife is scarce, patches of cloud forest 
mainly made up of Quercus formations are found between 2000m and 3100m. Likewise, the 
wildlife is impoverished on Volcan Poas in this case partly due to isolation caused by 
intensive agriculture at lower elevations. However cloud forest, described as Didomopanax- 
Weinmannia-Clusia forest, does occur between 2450m and 2700m. Endemics to this active 
volcano include Syntheosciurus poasensis (Poas mountain squirrel) and Escallonia poasana 
(cipreso). A third species is endemic to Volcan Poas, Otus clarkii (Clark's screech owl) and 
also to the extinct volcano Barba located in the Braulio Carrillo National Park. In Braulio 
Carrillo National Park, an area of abrupt terrain and extinct volcanoes, the fauna is extremely 
diverse, as is the flora (Boza, 1986; Boza & Mendoza, 1981; Harcourt & Sayer, 1996; 
lUCN, 1982; FAO, 1974; WCMC unpubl. data). 



Cordillera de Talamanca 

The Cordillera de Talamanca has been recognised as an extremely valuable site for 
biodiversity due to intermigrations from both North and South America resulting in 
considerable diversity and many endemics in the area. The mountain range, therefore, has 
been declared a Biosphere Reserve and World Heritage Site and has been given the name 
Reserva de la Biosfera de la Amistad. This Reserve comprises a range of protected areas, five 
of which are known to include cloud forest sites: Hitoy Cerere Biological Reserve, La 
Amistad National Park, Chirripo National Park, Tapanti National Park and Genesis II Cloud 
Forest Preserve. In Chirripo National Park, Cerro Chirripo at 3820m is not only the highest 
point within the Reserve, but also in southern Central America. Los Santos and Rio Macho 
Forest Reserves also include tracts of cloud forest. Most of the main crest of the Cordillera de 
Talamanca lies within montane rain forest and detailed botanical inventories in the montane 
forest zones have shown that there are at least 477 woody species in 223 genera and 90 
families. Ericaceae, Rosaceae, Poaceae and Asteraceae dominate the Upper Montane Forest 
zone. Likewise, the fauna in the Biosphere Reserve is extremely diverse. (Endemics to the 
Reserve include one species of fish, 20 species of amphibian and reptile, 15 bird species and 
13 mammal species.) Pressures on the montane forest include deforestation for charcoal 



115 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



production and low income cultivation of potatoes, carrots and cabbages (Kappelle & Juarez. 
1995(a). 1995(b); WCMC unpubl. data). 

Cordillera de Tilaran 

Cloud forest sites occur along the crest of the Cordillera de Tilaran and are included in a 
number of private parks (including the Santa Elena Cloud Forest Reserve...) the most famous 
of which is the Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve. It comprises six forest types: cove forest, 
leeward cloud forest, oak ridge forest, windward cloud forest, elfin forest and swamp forest. 
This forest has inspired a considerable number of studies, especially on vegetation and birds. 
It is therefore valued in particular for research and also for tourism (over 20,000 tourists 
visited the Reserve in 1990). A well-known indigenous resident of the Monteverde Cloud 
Forest is the brilliantly plumed quetzal (Pharomachrus mocinno). However, in spite of being 
protected as a Strict Namre Reserve, the vulnerability of this site as a safe haven for 
biological diversity has been illustrated through the decline of amphibians, including the 
extinction of the world's only population of golden toads (Bufo periglenes) through climate 
fluctuations coupled with habitat fragmentation. In addition to habitat loss, other pressures on 
the Reserve include hunting (particularly as adjacent lands are deforested and animals retreat 
into the Reserve) squatting and agriculmral encroachment on the lower slopes (Echeverria, 
Hanarahan & Solorzano, 1995; Harcourt & Sayer, 1996; Lawton & Dryer, 1980; Lober, 
1992; Menkhaus & Lober, 1996; Pound, 1991; Pound & Crump, 1994; Tobias & 
Mendelsohn. 1991; WCMC unpubl. data) 



Guanacaste Cordillera 

Cloud forest occurs around the volcanic summits in the Guanacaste Cordillera. These include 
Volcan Orosi, Volcan Cacao and Volcan Rincon de la Vieja. (These volcanoes are three of 
five that compose the Guanacaste Mountain Range.) Volcan Orosi and Volcan Cacao are 
located within the Guanacaste National Park and contain the smallest habitat islands of cloud 
forest in Costa Rica. They are also the lowest, occuring between 1000m and 1500m (cloud 
forest normally starts above 1800m in Costa Rica). Volcan Rincon de la Vieja has an altitude 
of 1898m and though it is an active volcano last erupting in the 1970s, its summit is covered 
with lower montane rain forest comprising either a very homogeneous growth of Clusia rosea 
(copey clusia) or a mixed forest of copey clusia, bayberry, suita of the palm family, scandent 
bamboo and several species of the Araceae family. This forest is exposed to strong winds and 
is covered almost all year long with mist and rain. One of the major benefits of this National 
Park is the conservation of the vast hydrographic system of the volcano, which comprises 32 
rivers and 16 water-collecting gorges in the park alone. The main threat to the forests of the 
Guanacaste Cordillera is deforestation for agriculture and pasUire (Boza, 1986; Boza & 
Mendoza, 1981; Janzen. 1986). 



116 



Latin America . Cemral 



EL SALVADOR 



El Salvador, the smallest country with the highest population density (300 sq.km) and the 
most degraded biodiversity resources in Central America, largely consists of rugged volcanic 
highlands of moderate elevation. The country is in an advanced state of deforestation, with 
only 3% of the forest remaining in its natural state. As a result, approximately 77% of the 
country has been seriously affected by soil erosion. The network of protected areas has yet to 
be finalised on paper and put into practice on the ground. El Salvadorean cloud forests, 
valued for biological diversity and watershed protection, are reported to be found above 
1800m, be 20-30m tall and be dominated by the families Fagaceae and Lauraceae. Epiphytes, 
including bromeliads and orchids, mosses, lichens and ferns are reported to be abundant 
(Hilty, 1982; Harcourt & Sayer, 1996; lUCN, 1982, 1992; WCMC unpubl. data). 

References 

Daugherty, H.E. 1972. The impact of man on the zoogeography of El Salvador. Biol. 

Conserv. 4:273-278. 
Daugherty, H.E. 1973. The Montecristo cloud-forest of El Salvador - a chance for 

protection. Biol.Consen'. 5:227-230. 
Hilty, S.L. (Comp.) 1982. Draft environmental profile of El Salvador. USMAB, 

Washington, DC. viii+137pp 
Harcourt, C.S. & Sayer, J. A. (Eds.). 1996. The conservation atlas of tropical forests the 

Americas. lUCN, Gland & WCMC, Cambridge. Simon & Schuster, New York. 

335pp. 
lUCN. 1982. lUCN directory of Neotropical protected areas. Tycooly International 

Publishing Ltd, Dublin. 436pp. 
lUCN. 1992. Protected areas of the world: a reviev.' of national systems. Vol.4: Neartic 

and Neotropical. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. 460pp. 
Ministerio de Agriculmra y Ganaderia. 1987. Elaboracion del plan y estrategia del sistema 

nacional de areas silvestres protegidas de El Salvador. Unpubl. 



117 



EL SALVADOR: CLOUD FOREST SUMMARY 



Date: 27/06/97 



Cloud Forest Region 



Cloud Forest Site 



Protected* 
Yes/No? 



Mountains of El Salvador 



Cerro El Pital 

Laguna Las Ninfas 

Las Granadi lias 

Las Mercedes 

Los Andes 

Montecristo 

San Isidro 

San Jos6 Miramar 

San Rafael Los Naranjos/El 

San Salvador 

San Vicente 

Santa Ana 

Santa Marfa 



14°24' 
13°54' 



13°52 
U°25' 



13°53 

13°45 

13"'36' 

13*52' 

13»43' 



N/ 89°08<U 
N/ 89°4S'U 

I 

I 
N/ 89*38'W 
N/ 89°23'U 

I 

I 
N/0a9°42'U 
N/089°17'U 
M/088»51'W 
N/089°38>U 
N/089*21 'U 



Yes 

Yes 

Ho 

No 

No 

Yes 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 



Total No. of 
CF Regions^ 1 



Total No. of 
CF Sites= 13 



Total No. of CF Sites with 
an element of protection < 3 



* 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: El Salvador 



Mountains of El Salvador 

The cloud forest in El Salvador have not escaped degradation and there is conflicting evidence 
as to the number of sites, their quality and the are occupied. According to Harcourt and Saver 
(1996) cloud forest sites are estimated to cover approximately 39 sq km and to be best 
developed in the northwest of the country in Montecristo National Park (which includes the 
peaks Cerro Brujo (2140m), Cerro Miramundo (2394m), Cerro Redondo (?) and Cerro 
Montecristo (2418m)) and on Cerro El Pital, which is the highest peak in the country 
(2730m). They also note that cloud forest can be found on the volcanoes Santa Ana, San 
Salvador and San Vicente. A list compiled by the Ministerio de Agriculuira y Ganaderia 
(1987) states that cloud forest may be found in the following additional areas: Los Andes, San 
Isidro, San Jose Miramar, San Rafael Los Naranjos (El Campanil), Las Granadillas, Santa 
Maria, Las Mercedes and Laguna Las Ninfas. According to Daugherty (1973), however, the 
original cloud forests of El Salvador are said to have been almost totally cut by peasant 
agriculturalists and firewood cutters, with the only remaining ecologically-viable cloud forest 
of El Salvador being the 12 sq km Montecristo cloud forest. However, more than half of this 
forest has also been cut. This forest adjoins the cloud forest of Trifinio National Park in 
Guatemala. The Montecristo cloud forest contains what is thought to be the last remaining 
patch of virgin forest in the country and the last remaining habitat for species of wildlife that 
have been exterminated in the lowlands. Examples of birds that are in danger of extinction, 
but are present in this site include: quetzal Pharomacrus moccino, black chachalaca 
Penelopina nigra and El Salvador hairy woodpecker Dryobates villosus. 

Regardless of the above conflicting reports the message is clear: cloud forest in El Salvador is 
in a very vulnerable state (Daugherty, 1972, 1973; Harcourt & Sayer, 1996; lUCN. 1982, 
1992; Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, 1987; WCMC unpubl. data). 



120 



Latin America : Central 



GUATEMALA 



Guatemala forms a bridge between two continents and two oceans. Large parts of the country 
are highland with 15.9% comprising montane forests. Cloud forests have been recorded in 
two of Guatemala's four main physical biogeographic regions: the Pacific mountain chain 
(including Sierra Madre and Trifmio) which consists of a chain of 33 volcanoes running 
parallel to the Pacific Ocean and the Interior Highlands (including Sierra de Mico, Sierra de 
las Minas and University Biotope for the conservation of the Quetzal), which reaches altitudes 
of 4000m and are quite heavily populated. The Guatemalan cloud forests have around 70% 
endemism amongst animal species, but as a result of colonisation, timber extraction and 
agriculture they represent some of the most endangered ecosystems in the country (Harcourt 
& Sayer, 1996; lUCN, 1992; Nations et al. 1988). 



References 

Harcourt, C.S. & Sayer, J. A. (Eds.). 1996. 77?^ conservation atlas of tropical forests the 

Americas. lUCN, Gland & WCMC, Cambridge. Simon & Schuster, New York. 

335pp. 
Instimto Nacional Forestal Guatemala. 1975. Plan preliminar de manejo para el parque 

nacional (monumento natural): Trifinio Guatemala: Documento tecnico de Trabajo 

No. CA 5 proyecto FAO/PNUD KLA/72/028. Oficina Subregional Centroamericana. 
lUCN. 1982. lUCN directory of Neotropical protected areas. Tycooly International 

Publishing Ltd, Dublin. 436pp. 
lUCN. 1992. Protected areas of the world: a review of national sy steins. Vol.4: Neartic 

and Neotropical. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. 460pp. 
LaBastille, A. 1973. Establishment of a quetzal cloud forest reserve in Guatemala. Biol. 

Conserv. 5:60-62. 
Mardones S., C. 1988. Trifinio: un desafio de conservacion para tres paises. Flora Fauna 

y Areas Silvestres 3 : 1 8-22 . 
Nations, J.D., Houseal, B., Ponciano, I., Billy, S., Godoy, J.C, Castro, F., Miller, G., 

Rose, D., Rey, M. and Azurdia, C. 1988. Biodiversity in Guatemala: biological 

diversity and tropical forests assessment. Center for International Development and 

Environment, 
World Resources Institute, Washington D.C., USA, December 1988. 110pp. 



121 



GUATEMAI^A: CLOUD FOREST SUMMARY 



Cloud Forest Region 



Sierra Madre 



Sierra de Mice 

Sierra de las Mmas 

Trifinio 

Univ. Biotope for the Conserv. of 



31oud Forest: Site 



Fmca Mocca Private Reserve 

Quetzal Cloud Forest Reserve 

VolcSn Acatenango 

Volcan AtitlSn 

Volccin San Pedro 

Volcan Santa Maria 

Volcan Tollman 

VolcAn de Fuego 

Sierra de Mico 

Sierra de las Minas 

Trifinio 

Univ. Biotope 



14°29'N/ 9C*53'K 
14°37'N/ 91°12'W 
14°40'N/ 91"45'W 
14°44'N/ 91°33'W 
14'*35'N/ 91*50'W 
14*'28 ■N/09C°53 'W 

/ 
IB'-Og'N/ 89°50'W 
14°30'N/ 89''20'W 
15*>15'N/ 90°17'W 



Protected" 
Yes/Nc" 



No 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

No 



Total No. of 
CF Regions= 5 



Total No. of 
CF Sites= 12 



Total No. of CF Sites with 
an element of orotection = 



'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I -VI criteria 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Guatemala 



Sierra Madre 

Sierra Madre includes a number of cloud forest sites, such as: Volcan Acatenango, Volcan 
Atitlan, Volcan de Fuego, Volcan Santa Maria, Volcan San Pedro and Volcan Toliman. On 
Volcan Atitlan, there is a lower montane wet forest belt and a 405ha reserve of virgin cloud 
forest has been established on private land in this belt in order to protect the resident 
population of quetzal Pharomachrus mocinno mocinno and homed quans Oreophasis 
derbianus. This protected area lies between 1707m and 2438m and is run by a Guatemalan 
association of landowners called the "Association Atitlan for the protection of the quetzal". It 
is known as the "Quetzal Cloud Forest Reserve" (LaBastille, 1973). 



Sierra de Mico 

Cloud forest, likely to be located in what is described as the low montane wet forest, is 
thought to occur on the Sierra de Mico. Most of this area is protected by the Rfo Dulce 
National Park, which extends from sea level to 1267m and includes the Sierra de Mico, Lake 
Izabel and the mouth of the Rio Dulce. The area is considered to be rich in amphibian and 
reptilian fauna (lUCN, 1982; WCMC, unpubl. data) 



Sierra de las Minas 

The cloud forests of the Sierra de las minas cover approximately 1300sq. km, of which more 
than 65% is thought to be virgin. All of the area is protected by the Sierra de las Minas 
Biosphere Reserve. The mountain range is said to include two thirds of the cloud forest left in 
Guatemala and also to be the largest unbroken extension of cloud forest in Central America 
(see Cordillera de Talamanca). The geographical isolation and the variety of elevations and 
climates have made Sierra de las Minas an area of high biological and zoological endemism, 
and also the most biologically diverse area in the country. For example, there are 885 species 
of reptiles, birds and mammals recorded in the area. Endangered species include the golden- 
cheeked warbler Dendroica chrysoparia. The area is also considered to be a unique genetic 
reservoir for conifer species. Sierra de las Minas cloud forest is valued as an important water 
catchment area by the local communities, since it gives rise to 62 permanent rivers. Pressures 
on the area include expansion of the agricultural frontier, logging, roads and hunting 
(Harcourt & Sayer, 1996; WCMC, unpubl. data). 



124 



Latin America : Central 



Trifinio 

The cloud forests of Trifinio, the majority protected by a National Park, abutt onto the cloud 
forests of Honduras and Montecristo National Park, in El Salvador. The cloud forests are 
found at altitudes greater than 1800m and are dominated by species of oak tree and laurel. A 
number of endemics may be found in the site including Gregia santaemartae . The area is 
valued as a water catchment area and also for its archelogical remains, which are of cultural 
importance (Instimto Nacional Forestal Guatemala, 1975; Mardones, 1988). 



Univ. Biotope for the Conserv. of the Quetzal 

This 900ha protected area is owned by the University of San Carlos. It ranges in altitude from 
1580m to 2348m and includes two mountains: Cerro Quisis/Geomaya (2348m) and Cerro 
Carpintero, also known as La Cumbre (2011m). The vegetation type in this protected area is 
lower montane rain forest also described as cloud forest. The dominant vegetation in the area 
is broadleaf but there are scattered small stands of two pine species: Pinus pseudostrobus and 
Pinus oocarpa. Approximately 60 species of birds and 24 species of mammals have been 
recorded in the reserve, but the area is valued for the protection of the quetzal Pharomacrus 
moccino (WCMC unpubl. data). 



125 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



MEXICO 



As a result of its latitudinal range and topography, Mexico contains a remarkable climatic 
complexity and biotic richness that make it one of the most ecologically diverse countries in 
the world. Tropical montane cloud forests occur along the Pacific and Gulf slopes from 
Sonora and Tamaulipas, respectively, southeast to Oaxaca and Chiapas, with some isolated 
patches in the Transverse Neovolcanic Belt in the centre of the country. The most extensive 
cloud forests in Mexico occur on the coastal-facing slopes and ridge tops of the mountain 
chains. They occur at altimdes between 700m (some areas in eastern Mexico) and 4000 m 
(Volcan Tacana, Chiapas) and total annual rainfall ranges from 1000mm in the driest areas to 
over 5000mm in the wettest (Volcan Tacana, Chiapas). They are typically a dense mixture of 
temperate and tropical broad-leaved tree species with canopy heights average between 20m 
and 35m, and contain many epiphytes and tree ferns. Tree genera characteristic of cloud 
forests in Mexico are Quercus, Podocarpus, Juglans, and specially Chiranlhodendron on the 
western slopes and Liquidambar on the eastern slopes (Rzedowski, 1986). 

The cloud forest is one of the country's rarest ecosystems and although it occupies only about 
0.07% of the land area, it contributes highly to the biological diversity of the country (Flores 
et aL 1971; Flores-Villela and Gerez, 1994; Gomez-Pompa et al. 1995). These forests hold 
about 1000 plant species which are endemic to the country. In addition 28 species of 
amphibians, 21 species of reptiles, 9 species of mammals and 9 species of birds are endemic 
(Flores-Villela and Gerez, 1994). 

Some important areas of cloud forest are considered within the Mexican scheme of Natural 
Protected Areas, such as El Triunfo, La Sepultura and Sierra de Manantlan. Other important 
regions, however lack any kind of protection, such as the cloud forests located in Sierra 
Madre Occidental and eastern Mexico. 

Cloud forest is naturally fragmented in Mexico because of its geological history, but further- 
fragmentation has occurred because of human activities and settlements. Current pressures 
include the expansion of the agricultural and grazing areas, logging and forest fragmentation 
by roads. These causal factors, however, are driven by economic, social and political forces 
in a broader context of political economy. 

Ecological and socio-economic values include the protection of watersheds for several rivers, 
lakes and springs, which provide water to human populations and are important for the 
production of electricity. Cloud forests also play an important role in the protection of soils 
from erosion, since they normally occur in areas with steep slopes. They also have important 
aesthetic and cultural values for many local inhabitants and ethnic groups. 



126 



Lai in America : Central 



References 

Breedlove, D. E. 1978. The phytogeography and vegetation of Chiapas (Mexico). In: 

Graham, A. (ed.). Vegetation and vegetational history of northern Latin America. 

150-165 pp. 
Bubb, P. 1991. The current situation of the cloud forest in northern Chiapas, Mexico. Final 

Report. Ecosfera, Pronatura, The Linnean Society of London, and Fauna and Flora 

Preservation Society. Unpublished manuscript. 
Collar, N. J., M. J. Crosby and A. J. Stattersfield. 1992. Birds to Watch 2. The world list 

of threatened birds. BirdLife Conservation Series No. 4. BirdLife International. 

Cambridge, UK. 407 pp. 
Flores, M. G., J. Jimenez L., X. Madrigal S., F. Moncayo R., and F. Takaki T. 1971. 
Memoria del mapa de tipos de vegetacion de la Republica Mexicana. Secretaria de Recursos 
Hidraulicos. Mexico. 59 pp. 
Flores- Villela, O. and A. Mufios-Alonso. 1993. Anfibios y reptiles. In: Luna- Vega, I. and 

J. Llorente-Bousquets (eds.). Historia natural del Parque Ecologico Omiltemi, 

Chilpancingo, Guerrero, Mexico. UN AM. Mexico, pp. 411-442. 
Flores-Villela, O. and P. Gerez. 1994. Biodiversidad y conservacion en Mexico: 

vertrebrados, vegetacion y uso del suelo. CONABIO-UNAM. Mexico. 439 pp. 
Garcia-Rendon, M. 1993. Vegetacion. In: Luna- Vega, I. and J. Llorente-Bousquets (eds.). 

Historia natural del Parque EcologicoOmiltemi, Chilpancingo, Guerrero, Mexico. 

UNAM. Mexico, pp. 39-56. 
Gomez-Pompa, A., R. Dirzo, A. Kaus, C. R. Nogueron-Chang, and M. de J. Ordonez. 

1995. Reservas de la biosfera y otras areas naturales protegidas de Mexico. 

SEMARNAP-INE-CONABIO. Mexico. 159 pp. 
Hernandez-Baiios, B. E., A. T. Peterson, A. G. Navarro-Sigiienza, and B. P. Escalante- 

Pliego. 1995. Bird faunas of the humid montane forests of Mesoamerica: 

Biogeographic patterns and priorities for conservation. Bird Conservation 

International. 5:251-277. 
Howell, S. N. G. and S. Webb. 1995. A guide to the birds of Mexico and northern Central 

America. Oxford University Press. New York, USA. 851 pp. 
Jimenez-Almaraz, T., J. Juarez-Gomez, and L. Leon-Paniagua. 1993. Mamiferos. In: Luna- 
Vega, I. and J. Llorente-Bousquets (eds.). Historia natural del Parque Ecologico 

Omiltemi, Chilpancingo, Guerrero, Mexico. UNAM. Mexico, pp. 503-549. 
Leon-Paniagua. L. and I. Luna- Vega. 1993. Asentamientos humanos. In: Luna-Vega, I. and 

J. Llorente-Bousquets (eds.). Historia natural del Parque Ecologico Omiltemi, 

Chilpancingo, Guerrero, Mexico. UNAM. Mexico, pp. 19-22. 
Long, A. and M. Heath. 1991. Flora of the El Triunfo Biosphere Reserve, Chiapas, Mexico: 

A preliminary floristic inventory and the plant communities of Polygon I. Anales del 

Instituto de Biologia de la UNAM, Serie Botanica. 62(2): 133-172. 
Martinez, A. L. and J. Llorente-Bousquetes. 1993. Mariposas. In: Luna- Vega, I. and J. 



127 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Llorente-Bousquets (eds.). Hisioria natural del Parque Ecologico Omiliemi. 
Chilpancingo, Guerrero, Mexico. UNAM. Mexico, pp. 307-385. 

Navarro-S., A. G. and P. Escalante-Pliego. 1993. Aves. In: Luna- Vega. I. and J. Llorente- 
Bousquets (eds.). Historia natural del Parque Ecologico Omiltemi, Chilpancingo, 
Guerrero, Mexico. UNAM. Mexico, pp. 443-50L 

Rzedowski. J. 1986. Vegetacion de Mexico. Limusa. Mexico. 

SARH (Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulicos). 1992. Compendio de informacion 
sobre areas naturales protegidas. Mexico. 147 pp. 

Vazquez-Garcia, J. A. 1993. Cloud forest archipelagos: preservation of fragmented montane 
ecosystems in tropical America. In: Hamilton, L. S., J. O. Juvik, and F. N. Scatena 
(eds). Tropical montane cloud forest. East- West Center, Program on Environment, 
pp. 203-216. 

Wege, D. C. and A. J. Long. 1995. Key areas for threatened birds in the Neotropics. 

BirdLife Conservation Series No. 5. BirdLife International. Cambridge, UK. 311 pp. 



128 



MEXICO: CLOtTD FOREST SXJMMARY 



Cloud Forest Region 



Cloud Forest Site 



Alcos de Chiapas 



Eastern Mexico 



Sierra Madre Occidental 



Sierra Madre de Chiapas 



Sierra Madre del Sur 



Transverse Neovolcanic Belt 



Huitepec 

Lagunas de Montebello 

Las Margaritas 

Ocosmgo, Chiapas 

Region Norte, Chiapas 

Volc^ Tacana 

Canon del Rio Blanco, Veracruz 

Cempoalt^petl , Oaxaca 

ChapulhuacAn 

Cuetzalan-Pahuatl^n, puebla 

El Cielo 

Huachinango, puebla 

Huautla 

Huayacocotla, Veracruz 

Joya del Hielo 

Perote , Veracruz 

Sierra de Alvarez, San Luis 

Sierra de JuSrez, Oaxaca 

Sierra de Otontepec, Veracruz 

Sierra de Santa Martha, Veracruz 

Teocelo, Veracruz 

Tlanchinol , Hidalgo 

Volcan San Martin, Veracruz 

Xilitla 

Zacatlamaya 

El Batel 

El Nayer 

Espinazo del Diablo 

Saguaribo, Sonora 

Surotato , Sinaloa 

Cerro Tres Picos 

El Triunfo 

La Sepultura, Chiapas 

Monte Ovando 

Volcan TacanA 

Cerro San Felipe, Oaxaca 

Los Chimalapas 

Loxicha 

Omiltempi , Guerrero 

Qelchultenango -Guerrero 

San Andres Chicahuaxtla, Oaxaca 

Sierra de Atoyac 

Sierra de Cuatro Vendados, Oaxaca 

Sierra de MaihuatlSn, Oaxaca 

Sierra de Yucunacua, Oaxaca 

Barranca de Cupatitzio, Michoac^n 

Cerra Vie jo 

Cerro de Garnica, Michoac^n 

CoalcomSn 

Cuale-Talpa 

I ztacihuatl- Popocatepetl 

Los Azufres, Michoac^n 

Nanchititla, State of Mexico 

Nevado de Colima 

Nevado de Toluca, State of Mexico 

Nevado de Toluca, State of Mexico 

Ocuilan, State of Mexico 

Pico de Tancitaro, MichoacSn 

Pico de Tancitaro, MichoacSn 

Sierra Chincua, MichoacSji 



i6»44 


N/ 


92-41 


W 


le-io 


N/ 


91-40 


w 


16°28 


N/ 


91-46 


w 


le-SB 


N/ 


91-51 


K 


17°11 


N/ 


92-52 


K 


15°06 


N/ 
/ 


92-12 


W 


17°0B 


N/ 
/ 
/ 


96-01 


W 


23°08 


N/ 
/ 


99-18 


w 


21''03 


N/ 
/ 
/ 
/ 

/ 


98-44 


w 


17°38 


N/ 
/ 


96-23 


w 


18°23 


N/ 


94-50 


w 


19''23 


N/ 


97-00 


M 


21°05 


N/ 


98-38 


W 


18-33 


N/ 


95-12 


W 


21-15 


N/ 
/ 


99-10 


M 


23-28 


N/105-49 


W 


21-31 


N/105-00 


w 


19-26 


N/103-16 


w 




/ 








/ 






16-31 


N/ 


93 = 25 


w 


15-40 


N/ 


92-53 


w 


16-10 


N/ 

/ 


92-44 


w 


15-06 


N/ 


92-12 


w 


17-10 


N/ 


96-40 


w 


16-46 


N/ 


94-12 


w 


16-04 


N/ 


96-33 


w 


17-33 


N/ 
/ 


99-41 


w 


17-11 


N/ 


97-53 


w 


17-25 


N/100-15 


w 




/ 






16-12 


N/ 
/ 
/ 


97-07 


w 


20-19 


N/ 
/ 
/ 
/ 


98-19 


w 


19-10 


N/ 
/ 
/ 


98-40 


w 


19-32 


N/103°37 


w 


19-15 


N/ 


99-45 


w 


19-15 


N/ 


99-45 


w 


18-59 


N/ 


99-19 


w 


19-13 


N/102°36 


w 


19-13 


N/102-36 


w 


19-44 


N/100-18 


w 



cloud Forest: Region 



Cloud Fores:: Sice 



Sierra de MananLl^n, 
Sierra de Taxco, Guerrero 
Temascaltepec, State of Mexico 
VolcAn la Malinche, 



19°33'N/104°10'W 
18°3TN/ 99°40'K 



19°14'N/ gS'OO'W 



Total No. of 
CF Regions= 6 



Nc 
No 

No 

Yes 



Total No. of 
CF Sites= 64 



Total No. of CF Sites with 
an element of Drotection = 



* 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I -VI criteria 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD EORESTS 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Mexico 



Altos de Chiapas 

This region is located in northern Chiapas (southeast Mexico) and runs southeast to where it 
joins the highlands of Guatemala, which in turn link Altos de Chiapas with Sierra Madre de 
Chiapas. All these regions are closely related and allied to the highlands of Honduras and 
north-central Nicaragua. Altos de Chiapas contains approximately 38 cloud forest fragments 
of different size which are grouped into three main sub-regions. Region Sun Norte. Ocosingo 
and Las Margaritas. Cloud forest can be found as low as 1300m, such as in Tumbala and 
Cordon Jolvit and up to 2800m as in Tzontehuitz (Bubb, 1991). Common tree genera in the 
canopy include Abies, Acer, Chiranthodendron, Clethra, Drimys, Liquidambar, Magnolia, 
Olmediella, Oreopanax, Per sea, Photinia, Pinus, Que reus. Weinmannia, Wimmeria, 
Zanthoxylum, Saurauia and Astronium (Breedlove, 1978; Bubb, 1991; Gomez-Pompa et aL, 
1995). Prominent animal species are the jaguar Panthera onca, ocelot Leopardus pardalis. 
and puma Felis concolor. Notable bird species include the highland guan Penelopina nigra, 
resplendent quetzal Pharomachrus mocinno and emerald toucanet Aulacorhynchus prasinus. 
Species endemic to this region are the snake Bothrops tzotzilorum and the bearded screech- 
owl Otus barbatus. The cloud forest in this region is very poorly protected; the only protected 
localities are the Lagunas de Montebello National Park, Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve 
and the privately protected areas of La Yerbabuena and Huitepec, which encompass a very 
low percentage of the cloud forest area of the region. As deforestation has occurred in the 
lowlands, the highlands, where cloud forest is found have become important refuges for 
several wildlife species (Bubb, 1991). As a result the conservation of these areas is vital. In 
addition they have an important role influence in the watershed protection of the Grijalva- 
Usumacinta Basin, and some areas of cloud forest are of local cultural importance. For 
example, the Cerros de Chalchihuitan are of religious importance for the Tzotzil people 
(Bubb, 1991). However the cloud forests are threatened by forest clearance leading to further 
fragmentation. The main causes are for milpa agriculnire and associated burning, cattle and 
sheep ranching, fuelwood gathering and timber extraction. Hunting may also occur in some 
places. In Chixtontic an additional threat is from oil exploration, with its attendant 
disturbance, pollution and increased accessibility to the forest from road construction (Bubb, 
1991). Since 1994, after the arising of the Zapatista Army, this region has been affected by 
social struggles which have meant further pressure on the cloud forests of the area. 



Eastern Mexico 

This region (north of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec) comprises the Sierra Madre Oriental, a 
mountain chain running parallel to the gulf coast. Close to a third of the cloud forests of the 



132 



Latin America : Central 



country are found here (Floras- Villela and Gerez, 1994), located at altitudes between 700m 
and 1500m, with a total annual rainfall of up to 4900mm (Volcan San Martin). The cloud 
forests of eastern Mexico tend to have more deciduous elements, such as Liquidamhar, Fagus 
and Nyssa (Vazquez-Garcia, 1993). Canopy tree height typically up to 30m with abundance of 
epiphytes, tree ferns and palms. Important tree genera are Quercus, Liquidambar. 
Podocarpus, Clethra, Carpinus, Ostrya, Persea, Meliosma, Sapindus, Fagus. Acer. 
Dendropanax, Cercis and Magnolia (Gomez-Pompa et ai. 1995). The endemic tree species 
Fagus mexicana is only found in a few localities within this region, in the states of 
Tamaulipas, Hidalgo and Puebla (Flores-Villela and Gerez, 1994). Endemic bird species 
include the bearded wood-partridge Dendrortyx barbatus, thick-billed parrot Rhyncopsitta 
terrisi and the dwarf jay Cyanolyca nana (Hemandez-Banos et al.. 1995; Wege and Long, 
1995). Threatened species occurring in this region include the jaguar Panthera onca, ocelot 
Leopardus pardalis. jaguarondi Herpailurus yaguarundi and lynx Lynx rufus. Most of the 
cloud forest of eastern Mexico is devoid of protection, except for El Cielo Biosphere Reserve 
in Tamaulipas and Los Tuxtlas in Veracruz (Volcan San Martin and Sierra de Santa Martha). 
The conservation of EI Cielo Biosphere Reserve is essential as the northern limit of many 
tropical species is found the north of this region (Gomez- Pompa et al., 1995). Other 
currently unprotected areas also have important cultural value for several indigenous people, 
such as the Huastec in the Huasteca region (San Luis Potosi, Veracruz and Hidalgo), and the 
Chinantec, Mixe and Mixtec in the Sierra de Juarez, who have extensive knowledge and uses 
of the flora. These forests also contain important ornamental plant species such as tree ferns, 
cycads, bromeliads and orchids. However control of extraction is poor and commercial 
collection of plant species with ornamental value, such as camedora palm Chainaedora spp. 
(Gomez-Pompa et al.. 1995) and tree ferns is often unsustainable. Other areas are under 
pressure from logging for wood, pulp and cellulose, slash and burn agriculture, cattle 
ranching, and hunting. 



Sierra Madre Occidental 

The Sierra Madre Occidental is a mountain chain running north-south parallel to the Pacific 
coast, making contact with the Transverse Neovolcanic Belt in Jalisco state in the centre of 
Mexico. The cloud forests of this region are not extensive because they are located in the 
northern limit of the Neotropical region. For this reason they have been poorly studied to 
date. Some endemic birds occurring in this region are the thick-billed parrot Rhynchopsitta 
pachyrhyncha. the black-throated magpie-jay Calocitta colliei and the oifted jay Cyanocorax 
diickeyi (Hernandez-Banos et al.. 1995; Howell and Webb, 1995). The cloud forests of this 
region, together with other forest types have an important influence for the protection of the 
watersheds of several rivers that provide water to human population, agricultural areas and 
for the generation of electricity . Pressures upon the cloud forests of this region include forest 
conversion to agricultural areas, logging and illegal planting of narcotics. 



133 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Sierra Madre de Chiapas 

This mountain chain in south eastern Mexico, runs parallel to the Pacific coast from the 
southern end of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec through Chiapas into Guatemala. It contains the 
largest area of cloud forest in Mexico, occupying an area of about 144.396ha in an almost 
continuous band. It occurs at altitudes between 750m and 4000m, with a total annual rainfall 
range from 2500nun (El Triunfo) to 5250mm (Volcan Tacana). Canopy trees are normally 
25m to 30m high, but can be up to 40m high. Common tree genera include Quercus. 
Matudaea, Dendropanax, and Ocotea (Gomez-Pompa et aL, 1995). Important vegetation 
communities are Quercus-Matudaea-Hedyosmum-Dendropanax, Liquidambar-Quercus-Pinus . 
Cupressus-Pinus, and Ficus-Coccoloba-Dipholis-Sapium (Long and Heath. 1991). Epiphytes 
such as orchids, bromeliads, mosses and ferns are very abundant (Gomez-Pompa et ai. 
1995). Threatened flora include some species of bromeliads, orchids and the cicada 
Ceratozamia matudae; threatened fauna includes the jaguar Panthera onca, ocelot Leopardus 
pardalis and bird species such as the highland guan Penelopina nigra, resplendent quetzal 
Pharomachrus mocinno and the black-throated jay Cyanolyca pumilo. There are at least two 
endemic bird species, the horned guan Oreophasis derbianus and cabanis' tanager Tangara 
cabanisi (Hemandez-Bahos et ai, 1995). Two important protected areas. La Sepultura and El 
Triunfo Biosphere Reserves have been decreed in this region, but more urgently require 
protection. In addition to the high biodiversity these forests are also important for the 
protection of three major river basins. The region also has high tourist potential because of its 
beautiful scenery and the occurence of outstanding faunal species such as the resplendent 
quetzal. The main causes of flirther clearance and fragmentation are from coffee plantations, 
slash and burn agriculture, cattle ranching, logging of Pinus and Quercus and some localised 
hunting. 



134 



Latin America . Central 



PANAMA 



Panama contains the lowest cloud forest sites in Central and South America. In addition, 
endemism is a striking feanire of the high cloud forests that reach 2000m and above in 
western Panama. Some correlation in Panama has been shown between animal distribution. 
in particular frogs of the genus Eleutherodactylus, and cloud forest zonation. Many of the 
cloud forests in Panama are included in protected areas. Colonization, deforestation and 
encroachment, however, seem to be major threats (Myers, 1969; Lewis, 1971; WCMC 
unpubl. data). 



References 

Cavelier, J., Solis, D. and Jaramillo, M.A. 1996. Fog interception in montane forests 

across the Central Cordillera of Panama. J. ofTrop. Ecol. 12:357-369. 
lUCN. 1992. Protected areas of the world: a review of national systems. Vol.4: Neartic 

and Neotropical. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. 460pp. 
LaBastille, A. 1973. An ecological survey of the proposed Volcano Baru National Park, 

Republic of Panama. lUCN Occasional Paper No. 6. 
Lewis, W.H. 1971. High floristic endemism in low cloud forests of Panama. Biotropica 

3:78-80. 
Myers, C.W. 1969. The ecological geography of cloud forest in Panama. Amer. Mus. 

Novit. 2396:1-52. 
Olson, D.M. 1994. The distribution of leaf litter invertebrates along a Neotropical 

altimdinal gradient. J. ofTrop. Ecol. 10:129-150. 
Porter, D.M. 1973. The vegetation of Panama: a review. In: Vegetation and vegetational 

history of northern Latin America (A. Graham, ed.) pp. 167-201. Elsevier Scientific 

Publishing Company. 



135 



PANAMA: CLOUO FOREST SUMMARY 



Date: 07/07/97 



Cloud Forest Region 



Cloud Forest Site 



Cordillera Central/Serrania de 



Cordillera de Jurad6 
Cordillera de San Bias 



Cordillera de Talamanca 



Peninsula de Azuero 
Serranfa de Pirre 
Serranfa de(l) Dari^ 

Serran(a del Sapo 



Cerro Campana 

Cerro Santiago 

Cerro Trinidad 

North of El Valle de Anton 

Cordillera de Jurad6 

Cerro Azul 

Cerro Bruja 

Cerro Jefe 

Cerro Pando 

La Amistad 

Volcan Baru/Volcan Chiriqui 

Cerro Hoya 

Cerro Pirre 

Cerro Half 

Cerro Tacarcuna 

Cerro Sapo 





Protected* 




Yes/No? 


/ 


Yes 


08°30'N/Oai°46'U 


No 


/ 


Yes 


/ 


Yes 


7°21'N/ 77°57'U 


Yes 


09°09'N/079°24'U 


No 


09°28'N/079°33'U 


Yes 


09°14'N/079°22'U 


Yes 


08°54'N/082°45'U 


No 


9''09'N/ 82°48'U 


Yes 


9°09'N/ 82°48'U 


Yes 


07°17'N/080°42'U 


Yes 


07°52'N/077''43'U 


No 


/ 


No 


08°09'N/Q77°18'U 


No 


07''57'N/078"'23'U 


No 



Total No. of 
CF Regions: 8 



Total No. of 
CF Sites= 16 



Total No. of CF Sites with 
an element of protection ' 9 



* 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Panama 



Cordillera Central/Serrania de Tabasara 

The Central Cordillera or the Serrania de Tabasara (as it is also known) is continuous with the 
Cordillera de Talamanca (see below) and likewise contains cloud forest sites, including Cerro 
Santiago, Cerro Campana, Cerro Trinidad and north of El Valle de Anton. Some of these 
sites are protected by the Altos Campana National Park, which protects a sizeable population 
of the rare golden frog Alelopus zeteki (Myers, 1969; Porter, 1973; lUCN, 1992; Olson, 
1994; Cavelier, 1996). 



Cordillera de Jurado 

This Cordillera is protected by the Darien National Park (see below) and is thought to contain 
cloud forest (Myers, 1969). 



Cordillera de San Bias 

There are thought to be many cloud forests, including some of Panama's lowest cloud forest, 
in region of the Cordillera de San Bias, for example Cerro Azul, Cerro Bruja and Cerro Jefe. 
Common endemics, such as Stemmadenia alleni are known to occur on both Cerro Azul and 
Cerro Jefe. Protected areas in the region include Portobel National Park and Metropolitano 
Natural Park (Myers, 1969; Lewis, 1971; lUCN, 1992). 



Cordillera de Talamanca 

The Panamanian-Costa Rican boundary bisects this mountain range and as in Costa Rica, the 
Cordillera de Talamanca in Panama has been declared part of the La Amistrad Biosphere 
Reserve (also a World Heritage Site). The cloud forest in the Cordillera de Talamanca is 
reputed to be the largest expanse of undisturbed cloud forest in Central America (see Costa 
Rica). Again as in Costa Rica, the Biosphere Reserve includes protected areas, in this case La 
Amistrad International Park and Volcan Bani. The highest point in the rugged topography of 
this Reserve, and also in Panama, is Cima del Volcan Bani (also known as the Volcan de 
Chiriqui) at 3400m. Cerro Pando (2290m) is another known cloud forest site in the mountain 
range. Due to intermigrations from both North and South America, the Reserve is considered 
to be the most important and biologically diverse natural area within the country and to 
contain the largest tracts of virgin forest in Panama. Most of the main crest lies within the 



138 



Latin America : Central 



montane rain forest life zone and is characterised by mixed oak forest. In altimdes higher than 
900m, it is estimated that there are 40 endemic species of birds and also the only Panamanian 
population of quetzal Pharomachrus mocinno. In addition, six species of amphibians have a 
distribution restricted to the Cordillera de Talamanca. Colonisation and deforestation are 
major threats to the area (Myers, 1969; LaBastille, 1973; WCMC unpubl. data). 



Peninsula de Azuero 

Cerro Hoya is one of a few mountains in the southern part of the Peninsula thought to contain 
cloud forest. The site is protected as part of Cerro Hoya National Park (Myers, 1969; lUCN, 
1992). 



Serrania de Pirre 

Serrania de Pirre is contained by the Darien National Park (see above). Cerro Pirre (also 
known as Cerro Cana) at 1200m, is the highest peak in the ridge (Myers, 1969). 



Serrania de(l) Darien 

Part of this mountain range is included in the Darien National Park (also a Biosphere Reserve 
and a World Heritage Site), which is thought to be the most extensive protected area in 
Central America and includes an exceptionally diverse flora and fauna with many species 
being endemic to the Park. The area is both anthropologically and historically rich. Known 
cloud forest sites are Cerro Tacarcuna and Cerro Mali. Oenocarpus panamanus, Clusia spp. 
and Quercus humboldtiana are all common species associated with this habitat. The Serrania 
de Darien is remarkable for containing some of the lowest known cloud forests. The region 
is, however, thought to be under pressure from road building, colonisation and associated 
problems (Porter, 1973; WCMC unpubl. data). 



Serrania del Sapo 

Serrania del Sapo is included in the Darien National Park (see above). Cerro Sapo (1,145m) is 
the highest peak (Myers, 1969). 



139 




PART TWO 

LATIN AMERICA 
SOUTH 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Ecuador 

Peru 
Venezuela 



Latin America : South 



BOLIVIA 

The combination of an intertropical position and the presence of the Andes results in a wide 
range of geographical and climatic factors means that Bolivia has a huge variety of 
ecosystems. These range from very dry lowland forest and desert through very moist tropical 
rainforest up to snow-covered mountains. Cloud forests are found in high mountain areas 
known as "Yungas" and down into sub-andean regions. According to a classification 
developed by Ribera (1992, in Harcourt and Sayer, 1996), highland forests (above 3(X)0m) in 
the Yungas region make up the upper layer of the very moist cloud forest and Yungas 
montane semi-moist forest, where the canopy is of medium height and trees are covered with 
epiphytes. At altitudes below 3000m, forests include the intermediate and lower layers of 
cloud forest, with trees not exceeding 20m in height. Below this level the forests, which are 
rich in species are in an advanced state of degradation and pressure on the cloud forests is 
growing. According to data from Bolivia's Conservation Data Centre the area of cloud forest 
and Yungas semi-moist forest is estimated at 28,092sq.km (Harcourt and Sayer, 1996). 

Latitudinal variations produce wide differences in climate from north to south, with a typical 
tropical region in the north, a subtropical-temperate region in the south and a wide transitional 
zone between them. Consequently towards the south, cloud forest tends to include more 
subtropical-temperate species. The forests are characterised by a great structural complexity 
and enormous diversity of flora, much of which has not been scientifically described, with the 
richest concentration of flowering plants found in the sub-andean and montane cloud forests. 
There is also great diversity of fauna, although many vertebrates are endangered or threatened 
with extinction. 

Under the General Forest Act of 1974, the Centre for Forest Development (CDF) was 
established with full power to protect and manage the forest system. However despite 
legislation, implementation is poor and many forest areas, including those set aside for 
protection have been harvested unsustainably or cleared for cultivation. In addition, until 
recently the legal foundation for protected areas was incomplete, and many ecosystems and 
species have inadequate protection. However recent efforts have been made to develop and 
establish a National Protected Areas System (NPAS) under the adminstration of a single 
organisation, the National Secretariat for the Environment, (SENMA). 

The cloud forests have an important role in watershed protection, and many local 
communities depend on them for a variety of resources. However, they remain under severe 
pressure from the expansion of agriculture and colonisation, as in many other South American 
countries. The development of Community Forestry programmes in the highlands with local 
populations have aimed to reduce the removal of tree cover, by illustrating how trees can be 
managed as part of farming systems to provide both environmental and social benefits. 



143 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



References 

DNCB. 1995. Sistema Nacional de Areas Protegidas (SNAPO). Unpublished. 
Ergueta, P.. Galarza, Y., Liberman, K. and Liberman, C. 1995. Catalogo de areas 

protegidas de Bolivia, VI. Directorio de Consulta sobre Areas Protegidas. La Paz. 

Bolivia. 
Harcourt, C.S. and Sayer, J. A. (ed.) 1996. The Conservation Atlas of Tropical Forests: The 

Americas. Simon and Schuster. 
Mansour, J. 1995. Parks in Peril Source Book. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington. 
Virginia, USA. 
Wege, D. and Long, A. 1995. Key Areas for Threatened Birds in the Neotropics. BirdLife 

Conservation Series No. 5. 



144 



BOLIVIA 




BOLIVIA: CLOUO FOREST SUMMARY 

Cloud Forest Region 

Eastern Cordillera (Central) 

Eastern Cordillera (North) 

Tari ja 



Total No. of 
CF Regions* 3 



Cloud Forest Site 



Airbor6 

Carrasco 

Isiboro Secure 

Madidi 

Palmares de Pasopaya-Presto-Rodeo 

Ulla Ulla 

Tariqufa 





Date: 


07/07/97 




Protected* 






Yes/No7 


^7'i,5's/ ds-sa'w 




Yes 


17°16'S/ 64°24'U 




Yes 


16»12'S/ 66''03'U 




Yes 


13°10'S/ 68°30"U 




Yes 


ia°37'S/ 64°35'U 




No 


UOSS'S/ 69-11 'U 




Yes 


20°00'S/ 64°30'U 




Yes 



Total No. of 
CF Sitess 7 



Total No. of CF Sites with 
an element of protection = 6 



* 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria 



Latin America : Soulh 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Bolivia 



Eastern Cordillera (Central) 

Like the northern section, the central portion of the Andean Cordillera possess a rugged relief 
with mountains and deep, narrow valleys. Cloud forest lies on the upper eastern slopes 
between 2200 and 3500m. However vegetation is transitional between moist and dry montane 
forests moving towards the subtropical-temperate zone to the south. As a result it is very 
diverse. Typically cloud forest containing tree species such as Weinrnannina boliviana. Alnus 
acuminata, and Podocarpus spp., along with tree ferns Cyathea spp. is found adjacent to 
palms and temperate cactus woodland in arid intermontane valleys (DNCB, 1995; Wege. D. 
and Long, A., 1995). Large numbers of mammals are found, including threatened species 
such as spectacled bear Tremarctos ornatus, jaguar Panthera onca and giant anteater 
Myremecophaga tridactyla. Between 600 and 700 hundred bird species have been recorded, 
amongst them threatened species such as the red-fronted macaw Ara rubrogenys and both 
ashy Myrmotherula grisea and yellow-rumped Terenura sharpei antwrens. As a result these 
forests have provided income to the area through small-scale ecotourism, in addition to their 
value for local use and water regulation. Protection of cloud forest in this area is variable, 
ranging from the cloud forest of Siberia in the publicly owned Amboro National Park, 
through the privately owned Carrasco Ichilo (National Park) to currently unprotected areas 
such as Palmares de Pasopaya-Presto-Rodeo, which is considered a priority site for 
conservation. However forests in all these areas are threatened by a combination of incoming 
settlers, hunting and logging, often at unsustainable levels. The logging of timber concession 
areas for mahoghany Swietenia macrophylla exacerbates the problem by opening up new 
roads, which in turn attract colonisers further up towards the fragile cloud forests. Recent 
correspondence claims that half a million acres (including all the cloud forest) of forest has 
been cleared with Government approval (Robin Clarke Gemuseus, pers. comm). 



Eastern Cordillera (North) 

Running south-east from the Peruvian border the northern end of the Eastern Cordillera is 
where the more tropical forest is found in Bolivia. This region has a very rugged relief 
mountain peaks separated by deep, narrow river valleys. Cloud forest is found in the high 
mountain or Yungas' portion, usually above 2600m on both western slopes which run down 
to the Atliplano, and eastern slopes which lead into the Amazon basin. The main tree species 
include Juglans boliviano, Alnus acuminata and Podocarpus spp. and Polylepis racemosa 
above the closed forest line. In addition to high plant diversity, many mammals are found in 
association with cloud forest areas including the Jaguar Panthera onca and Spectacled Bear 
Tremarctos ornatus. Hundreds of bird species have been recorded, including the Southern 
Helmeted Curasow Paiai unicornis and Yellow-rumped Antwren Terenura sharpei (Erguata 



147 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



et al. 1995) which are both threatened. Some of the cloud forest is within larger protected 
areas which include a range of habitats across the Cordillera, such as Ulla Ulla which borders 
Peru, and Isiboro-Secure, whilst other areas have been proposed for protection such as 
Madidi. Ownership is variable, some public, some privately or local community owned, as a 
wide range of Indian groups or "Cultures" inhabit the area. Some areas contain archaeological 
sites of importance, and in addition to sustaining local populations, the cloud forests regulate 
water supply and protect the headwaters of numerous rivers. Colonisation by illegal settlers is 
poorly controlled, leading to excessive forest exploitation, illegal hunting and fishing. 
Overgrazing by domestic livestock and the spread of fire form adjacent high altitude grassland 
are constant threats, and there is a risk of pollution from the activities of oil exploration and 
gold mining. 



Tarija 

The central valley of Tarija lies in the south of Bolivia, close to the border with Argentina. 
Within the tropical belt the climate is rather arid, although forests on the humid eastern slopes 
can be referred to as cloud forest. At altitudes up to 3500m the forest dominated by Alnus 
acuminata reflects the sub-tropical to temperate climate. A valuable habitat for both 
mammals, including spectacled bear Tremarctos ornatus and north andean huemul 
Hippocamelus antisensis, and threatened birds such as the rufous-throated dipper Cinclus 
schulzi and rufous-bellied saltator Saltator rufiventris much of the forest is within the Tariquia 
National Reserve. Cloud forest in this area plays an important role in watershed protection for 
a number of rivers and supports several adjacent communities, although encroachment is 
causing problems and several road projects which threaten the reserve are under consideration 
(Mansour, 1995). 



148 



Latin America : South 



BRAZIL 



Information on the biogeography of the tropical mountains of Brazil is very restricted and 
fragmented (Ab'Saber (1989), in Falkenberg and Voltolini. 1993). However the information 
available suggests that cloud forest is found in two main areas within Brazil. The majority is 
found in the mountain ranges which run along the south-eastern Atlantic coast, with a small 
amount in the Guyana Highlands which border Venezuela and Guyana to the north. In small 
patches or narrow strips, many are an intermediate forest type between more extensive forest 
or grassland ecosystems. 

Environmental legislation appears to give good protection to these forests within conservation 
codes or under the Forest Code (1965). However, in practice the legislation is rarely obeyed. 
As part of a national conservation strategy some cloud forests have been demarcated for 
protection, but many only exist as "paper reserves" which have no funding or site protection. 



References 

Falkenberg, D. and Voltolini, J. 1993. The Montane Cloud Forest in Southern Brazil. In L. 
Hamilton et al. (Eds.) Tropical Montane Cloud Forests; Proceedings of an 
International Symposium. East-West Center, Hawai'i. USA. 



149 



BRAZIL 



1000 km 




BRAZIL: CLOUD FOREST SUHHARY 



Date: 07/07/97 



Cloud Forest Region 



Guyana Highlands 

Serro do Mar and Aparados da Serra 



Cloud Forest Site 



Pico da Neblina 
Bairro de Corcovado 
Fazenda Intervales 
Itatiaia 
Sao Joaquim 
Serra do Bocafna 
Serra do Tingui 
Serra dos Orgaos 



0- 


>20' 


'N/ 


66' 


■02' 


'U 


23' 


■28' 


'S/ 


45' 


■10' 


'U 


24' 


■14' 


'S/ 


48' 


■09' 


'U 


22' 


'23' 


'S/ 


44' 


■38 'U 


28' 


'08' 


'S/ 


49' 


'33' 


'U 


22' 


'50 


'S/ 


44' 


'30 


'U 


22' 


'36' 


'S/ 


43' 


'25' 


'U 


22' 


■28 


'S/ 


43' 


'03 


'U 



Protected* 
Yes/Ho? 



Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

Yes 



Total No. of 
CF Regions= 2 



Total No. of 
CF Sites= 8 



Total No. of CF Sites with 
an element of protection = 7 



■Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Brazil 



Serro do Mar and Aparados da Serra Geral 

The high elongated mountain ridge of Serro do Mar is found on the south-east Atlantic coast 
of Brazil in the states of Santa Catarina and Parana. It is composed of metamorphic rocks 
dating back to the Precambrian age. The Serra Geral is further south in the states of Santa 
Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, and is formed from volcanic rocks of the Cretaceous age. A 
vast plateau, its easternmost limit is characterised by vertical cliffs and deep, steep-walled 
valleys. 

Both areas are covered almost daily by orographic cloud or fog ("cerra?ao" or viragao"). 
formed by the ascent of warm and moist oceanic winds that cool and condense at higher 
altitudes. Annual rainfall is generally above 1500mm (Falkenberg and Voltolini, 1993). 

Areas of cloud forest are found in both locations, either as a narrow belt, or as small spots. 
Rarely differentiated as a single vegetative type, the cloud forest is often found as a transition 
between hillside Atlantic forest and Araucaria pine forest, or as an intermediary belt between 
Atlantic forest and the high altimde fields where grassland with isolated shrubs replaces forest 
(Falkenberg and Voltolini, 1993). 

Sites in the Serro do Mar locality include Serra dos Orgaos, Serra do Tingua, Serra do 
Bocaina, Itatiaia, Bairro de Corcovado and Fazenda Intervales. Generally in this area, the 
forest changes at 1150m into cloud forest up to 1350m where the grassland begins. Further 
south on the Aparados and within the Sao Joaquim National Park, the cloud forest forms a 
narrow belt between 700 and 1100m. 

In general, these forests are dominated by small trees (6-8m) and shrubs which have an 
incredible abundance and diversity of epiphytes (including orchids and bromeliads). However 
there are floristic differences between the two areas, with Serro do Mar supporting a number 
of south Brazilian endemic tree species, including Myrcia rupicola and Psidium spathulatum. 
Aparados has endemics of its own, including Mimosa balduinii and Euplassa nebulahs. 
Fifteen species of ferns are considered exclusive to the southern cloud forest, including one 
endemic, Polyodium subinaequale . Large numbers of mosses, lichens and lianas are also 
found, and play a vital role in water retention in the canopy. No published faunal surveys 
exist, but some highly endangered species use this forest as a refuge, including puma Felis 
concolor, harpy eagle Harpia harpyja (Falkenberg and Voltolini, 1993). 

Many of the cloud forests appear to be under some sort of protection, within the boundaries 
of national parks or other "reserves". However few actually receive effective protection and 



152 



Larin America : South 



the only relatively well-established reserve is the Parque Nacional de Aparados da Serra. 
Pressures include clearance for pasture and pine plantations, firewood cutting and damage 
from fire which has spread from, burning of the adjacent grasslands. In some areas there has 
been heavy extraction of tree fern Dicksonia sellowiana for floriculture and gardening 
purposes (Falkenberg and Voltolini, 1993). 



Guyana Highlands 

Found on the frontier with Venezuela and Guyana, this area contains the only true Amazonian 
"montane" formations, at altitudes above 1800m. The main cloud forest area is found on the 
slopes of Pico da Neblina, and has high floral diversity and a huge degree of endemism. The 
stunted forest is carpeted with mosses, Sphagnum spp. and contains carnivorous plants, 
Heliamphera spp and several species of orchid. 



153 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



COLOMBIA 



In Colombia, the Andes form three cordilleras - Occidental (western). Central and Oriental 
(eastern) - with their axes running parallel south to north. They are separated by the long, 
deep longitudinal valleys of the Magdalena and Cauca rivers. Most of the country's 
remaining montane forests are found in the western and eastern cordillera regions, although 
there are other important areas in more isolated mountain ranges. There has been 
considerable deforestation over the last 50 years, at its greatest in the Central Cordillera, with 
the main causes being shifting cultivation and colonisation. Despite this, the country has 
large areas of pristine forest and there is recent evidence of some highly innovative forest 
conservation programmes (Harcourt and Sayer, 1996). 

The upper montane forests which remain are found on steep areas of the cordilleras and other 
mountain ranges at altimdes over 2000m up to between 3200 and 3800m depending on their 
location. It is largely due to their elevation and inaccessibility that they remain. These 
include cloud forests - in many cases mist is frequent, and there are abundant epiphytes and 
Angiosperms such as Bromeliaceae, Orchidaceae and Begoniaceae which cover the trunks and 
branches of the trees. Biotic diversity in these forests is high, including 15 percent of all 
orchid species found in the world. Over 1500 bird species are recorded of which 46 moist 
forest species are threatened (WCMC, 1992; Collar et al. 1992). 

In addition isolated low-altimde cloud forests with the physiognomy of upper montane forests, 
are found on the Caribbean coast both in Colombia and Venezuela on summits of mountains 
less than 1000m high. 

A particular threat to the remaining primary montane forests is the illegal cultivation of 
Papaver somniferum for the production of opium, morphine, and heroin. It is estimated that 
c. 50,000 ha was deforested during 1991-92 (Cavelier and Etter, 1995). 

Despite the existence of legislation relating to forest conservation, in reality there is no 
effective strategy for its implementation. The forests are still at risk as private ownership is 
possible within the parks and regulations are often poorly enforced. In particular, specific 
measures for conservation of cloud forest or montane forest areas are lacking, and the 
importance of sustainable management is only slowly being realised. It is widely felt that the 
acquisition of areas by committed private people or NGOs is the only safeguard for 
conservation (Wolf, 1994). Indeed an increasing number of private reserves are being 
established and protected from colonisers, and efforts are being made to work with the 
owners of these areas to set up a network of private reserves. 



154 



Latin America : South 



References 

Cavelier, J. and Etter, A. 1995. Deforestation of Montane Forests in Colombia as a result 

of illegal plantations of Opium. Biodiversity and Conserxation of Neotropical 

Montane Forests, pp. 541-550, Edited by Steven P. Churchill et al. New York 

Botanical Garden. 
Cavelier, J. and Mejia, C.A. 1990. Climatic factors and tree stature in the elfin cloud 

forest of Serrania de Macuira, Colombia. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 53: 

105-123. 
Harcourt, C.S. and Sayer, J. A. (Eds.). 1996. The Conservation Atlas of Tropical Forests: 

The Americas. Simon and Schuster. 
Hofstede, R.G.M., Wolf, J.H.D. and Benzing, D.H.1993. Epiphytic biomass and nutrient 

status of a Colombian Upper Montane Rain Forest. Selbyana 14: 37-45. 
Kattan, G.H., Alvarez-Lopez, H. and Giraldo, M. 1994. Forest Fragmentation and Bird 

Extinctions: San Antonio Eighty Years Later. Conservation Biology 8(1): 138-146. 
INDERENA, 1984. Colombia: Parques Nacionales. Bogota, Colombia. 
Silverstone-Sopkin, P.A. and Ramos-Perez, J.E. 1995. Floristic exploration and 

Phytogeography of the Cerro del Torra, Choco, Colombia. Biodiversity and 

Conservation of Neotropical Montane Forests, pp. 169-186, Edited by Steven P. 

Churchill et al . New York Botanical Garden. 
Sugden, A.M. 1982a. The ecological, geographical and taxonomic relationships of an 

isolated Colombian cloud forest, with some implications for island biogeography. 

Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 63: 31-61. 
Webster, G.L., 1995. The Panorama of Neotropical Cloud Forests. Biodiversity and 

Conser\>ation of Neotropical Montane Forests, pp. 53-77, Edited by Steven P. 

Churchill et al. New York Botanical Garden. 
Wege, D. and Long, A. 1995 Key Areas for Threatened Birds in the Neotropics. BirdLife 

Conservation Series No. 5. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK. 
Wolf, J.H.D. 1994. Towards the Conservation of Montane Cloud Forests and Paramo 

Vegetation in the Los Nevados area, Central Cordillera, Colombia. Unpublished. 



155 



COLOMBIA 




COLOMBIA: CLOUD FOREST SUMMARY 



Date: 07/07/97 



Cloud Forest Region 



Cloud Forest Site 







Protected* 






Yes/No? 


4°46'N/ 


76''29'U 


No 


4°36"N/ 


75°28'U 


No 


/ 




No 


4-46 -M/ 


75°27'U 


Yes 


2°59'N/ 


75°58'U 


Yes 


2°09'N/ 


76''31'U 


Yes 


5°a4'N/ 


75°30'U 


No 


4°38'N/ 


75°36'U 


No 


5°23'N/ 


76°00'U 


No 


4°52'N/ 


76°12'U 


No 


A'SJ'N/ 


76''05'U 


Yes 


3°30'N/ 


76-48 'U 


No 


6''39'N/ 


76°09'U 


Yes 


3°12'N/ 


76°46'U 


Yes 


2°33'N/ 


76''57'U 


Yes 


3''09'N/ 


76°14'U 


No 


5°54'N/ 


73°26'U 


No 


6°47'N/ 


73025. u 


No 


rSA'N/ 


76''00'U 


Yes 


4°17'N/ 


73''48'U 


No 


4°32"N/ 


73°44'U 


Yes 


7»24'N/ 72°26"U 


Yes 


6''24'N/ 


72°21'U 


Yes 


4%9'N/ 


73»40'U 


No 


10''29'N/ 72°55'U 


No 


12''09'N/ 


71°20"U 


Yes 


10°59'N/ 


73°38'W 


Yes 


2°44'N/ 


73°55'W 


Yes 



Cerro del Torri 
Cordillera Central 



Cordillera Occidental 



Cordillera Oriental 



Northern Sierra de Perija 
Serranfa de Hacuira 
Sierra Nevada de Santa Harta 
Sierra de la Hacarena 



Cerro del Torri 

Alto Ouindfo 

Finca Guayaquil 

Los Nevados 

Nevado de Hui la 

Purac6 

Rio Blanco Watershed 

Ucimarf 

Alto de Pisones 

Alto de los Galapagos 

Cerro Tatam^ 

Cerro de San Antonio 

Las Orqufdeas 

Los Farallones de Cali 

Munch i que 

Santa Helena 

Cerro Carare 

Cuchi I la del Ramo 

Cueva de los Gu^charos 

Monterredondo 

Paramo de Chingaza 

PSraino de TamS 

Sierra Nevada del Cocuy 

Valle de Jesus forest 

Cerro Pintado 

Serranfa de Macuira 

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta 

Sierra de la Macarena 



Total No. of 
CF Regions= 8 



Total No. of 
CF Sites= 28 



Total No. of CF Sites with 
an element of protection = 14 



* 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Colombia 



Cerro del Torra 

Located in the Departamento del Choco in Western Colombia. Cerro del Torra (c. 2800m) is 
part of the Cordillera de San Miguel, which lies to the west and is distinct from the main 
Cordillera. However research shows a significant phytogeographical affinity with the 
Cordillera Occidental (Silverstone-Sopkin and Ramos-Perez, 1995). Being within Choco, 
which has the highest floristic diversity per unit area in the world (Gentry, 1986) makes the 
mountain of particular botanical interest. There are two distictive cloud forest types. Moist 
cloud forest is found between 1600 and 2500m, with bryophytes covering trunks and 
branches, abundant ferns and Clusiaceae. There is also a high diversity of orchids and other 
epiphytes. Canopy tree height decreases from c. 30m at 1600m to 12m at 2500m, where it is 
dominated by small trees including Podocarpus spp. and palms. At altitudes between 2500 
and 2730m on steep terrain below the summit ridge, dwarf cloud forest with a relatively low 
floral diversity is found, which is dominated by Clusia at between 3 and 6m. with emergent 
Geonoma palms and abundant bryophytes (Silverstone-Sopkin and Ramos- Perez, 1995). 



Cordillera Central 

Fragments of cloud forest are found scattered along the western slopes of the Central 
Cordillera. Upper montane (cloud) forest is usually found between 2000 and 3700m, 
bordering the lower edge of the subalpine dwarf forests and paramo. 



Cordillera Occidental 

Patches of relatively isolated cloud forest remain along the western slopes of the Cordillera 
Occidental which possess a rugged relief with steep slopes and sharply cut mountains. 
Bordering the Choco region, some are pristine areas with high floristic diversity, whilst 
others are more fragmented. They range from areas within larger National Parks such as 
Cerro Tatama, Las Orquideas. Los Farallones de Cali and Munchique, to smaller unprotected 
areas including Alto de los Galapagos, Alto de Piscones, Cerro de San Antonio and Santa 
Helena. Mainly broadleaved, the cloud forests are commonly found between 1500 and 3500m 
and include Quercus humboldtii along with species of Podocarpus, Cinchona and 
Weinmannia. In Las Orquideas there are many species of orchids, particularly of the genera 
Angulosa, Elleanthus and Cattleya. Bird diversity is high, including threatened species such 
as the long-wattled umbrellabird Cephalopterus penduliger and Buthraupis spp. (Wege and 
Long, 1995). Other highly diverse fauna include bats, marsupials, primates and mammals. 



158 



Latin America : Somh 



amongst them endangered species such as the spectacled bear Tremaraos ornatus and the red 
howler monkey Alouana seniculus. Cloud forest areas, including those in the Parks, are under 
pressure from illegal settlement and subsequent conversion of areas for agriculmral land. 
Some, including those around Cerro de San Antonio are isolated forest fragments in a matrix 
of small farms and suburban houses (Kattan et al. 1994). Munchique and the adjacent 
Tambito private reserve are also threatened by construction of a hydroelectric plant and 
proposed highway development (Wege and Long, 1995). Almost total destruction of forest in 
the valleys below means that remaining forest is of great value in terms of biodiversit} and 
watershed conservation, in addition to sustainable use by local communities. 



Cordillera Oriental 

Cloud forests are commonly found on the eastern slopes of the Oriental or eastern Cordillera, 
which is one of the main areas where primary forest remains (Cavalier and Etter, 1995). In 
the north where the highest peaks are found, two areas. Sierra Nevada del Cocuy and Paramo 
de Tama (adjacent to El Tama National Park in Venezuela) contain cloud forest at altitudes 
between 2300 and 37(X)m. Main tree species include Podocarpus respligliosii and 
Weinmannia spp. and these areas harbour numerous plant and animal species endemic to 
Colombia. Mammals include brazilian tapir Tapirus terrestris and the common woolly 
monkey Lagothrix lagothrica. The endangered northern helmeted curassow Pauxi pauxi is 
also found Cocuy. Both areas contain the sources of important rivers, and are under legal 
protection as National Parks in theory, although in practice there is little control (Wege and 
Long, 1995). Small fragments of humid subtropical and temperate oak-Lauraceae forest such 
as Cuchilla del Ramo and Cerro Carare (both unprotected) are found on the western slopes. 
These are habitat for threatened bird species, and under pressure from surrounding crop 
cultivation (Wege and Long, 1995). In the central portion of the eastern slopes, close to 
Bogota a belt of cloud forest is found which includes Valle de Jesiis communal reserve. 
Paramo de Chingaza (containing Chingaza National Park) and unprotected areas close to 
Monterredondo. Found extending down to a slightly lower altimde, c. 2000m the main tree 
species in these areas include Weinmannia macrophylla and the endangered Podocarpus 
oleifolius. Chingaza especially, is rich in bird species, some threatened such as the rusty-faced 
parrot Hapalopsittaca amazonia and flame-winged parakeet Pyrrhura calliptera. Only the 
truly inaccessible areas are truly safe as private ownership and encroachment threaten 
effective protection, and an enlargement of the Chingaza National Park has been proposed by 
Fundacion Natura to include adjacent reserves (Wege and Long, 1995). Further south on the 
western slopes of the eastern Andes, cloud forest forms an important part of Cueva de los 
Guacharos National Park which protects the headwaters of the Suaza River. The area contains 
the last stand of nearly pristine broadleaf montane forest in Colombia which contains Quercus 
humboldtii and Cedrela spp., moving through cloud forest to paramo at 2600m (INDERENA, 
1984). Mammals include the threatened spectacled bear Tremarctos ornatus, mountain tapir 
Tapirus pinchaque and the common woolly monkey Lagothrix lagothrica. The area is 



159 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



increasingly threatened by human encroachment and opium production, and there is illegal 
logging (Wege and Long, 1995). 



Northern Sierra de Perija 

In Northern Colombia, the Sierra de Perija is contiguous with the National Park of the same 
name in Venezuela, although in Colombia it is not under any protection. It contains relatively 
intact cloud forest on the upper slopes of Cerro Pintado (3000m), which is a valuable habitat 
for the threatened bird species, the northern helmeted curassow Paiai paiai which is under 
pressure from local hunters (Wege and Long, 1995). 



Serrania de Macuira 

The Guajira Peninsula forms the north-eastern tip of Colombia on the Caribbean coastline. An 
unusual "dry" elfm cloud forest is found on the coastal range of the Serrania de Macuira 
which contains three peaks, the highest at 865m. This cloud forest is divided into three islands 
at relatively low altitude, 500-550m on the windward side and 600-650m on the leeward side 
of the mountains and is surrounded by a dry deciduous forest (Cavelier and Mejia. 1990). It is 
also unusual because rainfall is very low. and virmally all the precipitation is due to 
condensation from clouds. During the daytime the clouds remain above the highest peaks, 
decreasing radiation, air temperature, relative humidity and evaporation in relation to the 
surrounding lowlands. At night the clouds come into contact with the forest canopy 
surrounding water through mist and fog interception. The constant cloud cover provides the 
high humidity which allows relatively mesophilous plants to survive (Sugden, 1982a, 1982b 
in Webster, 1995). Prominent tree species include Croton xancthochloros and Terminalia 
amazonia with a canopy height of 12-15m. There are numerous epiphytes, but floral 
diversity is low, with only one endemic species Cordia macuirensis. The cloud forest areas 
are contained within the Macuira National Park, and although there is some pressure from 
livestock grazing, much of the forest is undismrbed. 



Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta 

The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta lies some 250km south-west of Macuira along the 
Caribbean coast. Often considered as part of the Central Cordillera, it is in fact an isolated 
massif containing the highest mountain in Colombia, Cerro Simon Bolivar at 5879m. A 
wealth of biodiversity combined with its isolation have resulted in the evolution of a large 
number of endemic species, including some found only in montane forest areas. The forest 
has been under changing pressures, initially from campesinos fleeing violence in other parts 



160 



Laiin America : South 



of the country and displaced Indian communities. In the 1970s the area became a guerilla 
stronghold, and as a result is relatively underexplored (Harcourt and Sayer, 1996). 
Designated both a National Park and Biosphere Reserve the forests provide important 
protection for the watersheds of five rivers. 



Sierra de la Macarena 

Found in a mainly low altitude region to the east of the Andes, which extends into the 
Amazon Basin, the large isolated massif of Sierra de la Macarena is considered to be the 
western extreme of the Guyana highlands (Harcourt and Sayer, 1996). Deep valleys are 
separated by tablelands or tepuis and mountain peaks which rise to 2500m. The major 
vegetation type is moist broadleaf forest, some of which is considered cloud forest. Fauna is 
highly diverse with threatened mammals including the long haired spider monkey Ateles 
belzebuth and the giant otter Pteronura brasiliensis, and birds such as the spot-winged 
Parrotlet Touit stictoptera. Part of the Sierra de la Macarena National Park, the area is mainly 
under national ownership, with 10% in private ownership. Under pressure for logging, half 
the forest has been cut and the remainder, at higher altitudes is highly threatened (Wege and 
Long, 1995). 



161 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



ECUADOR 



The majority of montane cloud forests in Ecuador are found along the Andean Cordillera 
which run the length of the country, with a small number on the west coast in the Cordillera 
de la Costa. These forests have very high endemism of both fauna and flora, and perform an 
important watershed protection function. However, they are under severe pressure from the 
rapidly increasing population in the Interandean valleys, which provides fertile soils and an 
hospitable environment. The main pressures are from agricultural encroachment, grazing, 
hunting and cutting for fuelwood. Almost all the natural forests of the central valley have 
been removed and only 4% on the west Andean slopes remain (Dodson and Gentry, 1991). 
With regard to cloud forest, in the main Interandean valley only a few highly disnirbed 
patches remain on the inner slopes. On the Pacific slopes cloud forest exists between 1500 
and 3500m, particulary in the north. Eastern slopes are relatively undisturbed although under 
increasing threat (Harcourt and Sayer, 1996). Some forests are within legally protected areas, 
but remain vulnerable to pressure for clearance. Much of the cloud forest remains in isolated 
patches which are not protected, while others have been secured under private or community 
ownership, as reserves, whilst more secure protected area status is sought. 



References 

Barnett, A. 1988. Rio Mazan - A People's Forest. The Ecologist Vol. 18, No. 2. 
Dodson, C. and Gentry, A.H. 1991. Biological extinction in western Ecuador. Annals of 

the Missouri Botanical Garden 78; 273-295. 
Downer, C.C. 1996. The mountain tapir, endangered 'flagship' species of the high Andes. 

Oryx, Vol 30, No 1. 
Harcourt, C.S. and Sayer, J. A. (Eds.) 1996. The Conservation Atlas of Tropical Forests: 

The Americas. Simon and Schuster. 
Horwell, D. 1988. Galapagos: the enchanted isles. Dryad Press, London. 
Mansour, J. 1995. Parks in peril source book. The Nahire Conservancy, Arlington, 

Virginia, USA. 
Parker T.A. and Carr, J.L. [Eds] 1992 Stauis of forest remnants in the Cordillera de la 

Costa and adjacent areas of south-western Ecuador (Rapid Assessment Program). 

Washington, D.C.; Conservation International. 
Toyne, E.P. and Jeffcote, M. (1996) Notes on cloud forests in Southern Ecuador 

(unpublished). 
Wege, D. and Long, A. (1995) Key Areas for Threatened Birds in the Neotropics. BirdLife 

Conservation Series No. 5. 
Zorrilla, C. (1996) Notes on the Intag Cloud Forest Reserve (unpublished). 



162 



ECUADOR 



200 km 



h 



A, 



ly -^ J' 



GALAPAGOS 
ISLANDS 

100 km 




South andiV\(est 
Loja Provtnci 



sS^ 



ECUADOR: CLOUO FOREST SUMMARY 



Date: 07/07/97 



Cloud Forest Region 

Cajas Mountains 
Chilla Mountains 



Cordillera Occidental 



Cordillera Oriental 



Cordillera de la Costa 
Cordillera del Condor 

Galapagos Islands 



Orientales Cordillera Real de los 



Saraguro 



Cloud Forest Site 



Protected* 
Yes/No? 



South and Uest Loja Province 



Rio Mazan 

Buenaventura 

Manu Forest 

Atacazo 

Cotacach i - Cayapas 

Intag 

Volc^n Pichincha 

Podocarpus National Park 

Sangay 

Zapote Najda Mountains 

Machalilla 

Chinapinza 

Shaime 

Fernandina 

Isabela 

Santa Cruz 

Cayambe-Coca 

Cerro Mongus 

Cordillera de Guacamayo 

Playon de San Francisco 

VolcSn Simaco 

Cuesta de Canabrada 

El Ouingueado 

El Sauce 

Huashapairba 

Ingapirra 

Onacapa/Hinuna 

Santiago 

Torr6 

Alamor 

Angashcola 

Celica 

LaguniUas 

Sozoranga 

Vicentino 



2''49'S/ 


79°07'U 


3°40'S/ 


79°44'U 


/ 




0''22'S/ 


78°36'U 


0°35'N/ 


78°25'U 


0''36'N/ 


78°20'U 


0°06'S/ 


78''35'U 


A-OS'S/ 


78°58'W 


2°00'S/ 


78°20'W 


3°01'S/ 


78°38'U 


1''39'S/ 


80°41'U 


3°59'S/ 


78°34'U 


4°22'S/ 


78''39'U 


0''21'S/ 


9r32'U 


0°48'S/ 


91°07"U 


0°37'S/ 


90°21'U 


0°01'S/ 


77=49. u 


0'>21'N/ 


77°52'U 


0°29'S/ 


78°00'U 


0'>30'N/ 


77°40'U 


0'"34'S/ 


77°38'U 


3°32'S/ 


79''22'W 


/ 




3°45'S/ 


79''20'U 


Z'ZS'S/ 


79°17'U 


3°42'S/ 


79°13'U 


3°41'S/ 


79°12'U 


3°48'S/ 


79°17'U 


3*'38'S/ 


79°13'U 


4°00'S/ 


80°00'U 


4°34'S/ 


79°22'U 


4°07'S/ 


79''58'U 


4°47'S/ 


T)°ZZ'\I 


4°20'S/ 


79°t,S'U 


3°57'S/ 


79°57'U 



No 

No 

No 

No 

Yes 

No 

No 

No 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

No 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

No 

No 

Yes 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 



Total No. of 
CF Regions: 10 



Total No. of 
CF Sites= 35 



Total No. of CF Sites with 
an element of protection = 10 



* 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria 



LMtin America : South 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Ecuador 



Cajas Mountains 

In the Andes of southern Ecuador, the Cajas Mountains are to the north-west of the town of 
Cuenca. The topography has largely resulted from extensive glaciation, with U-shaped 
valleys, moraines and numerous "boxed" glacial lakes, from dammed river valleys ("Cajas" 
meaning caja or box). Cloud forest is found in the Protected Landscape (lUCN Category V) 
of Cajas National Recreation Area and the privately owned Rio Mazan reserve. The montane 
cloud forest zone from 2800-3400m consists of woodland containing typical cloud forest 
species such as Myrtus and Podocarpus, grasslands and some areas of chaparral (dominated 
by scrub species, as climax woodland does not form as a result of overgrazing and fire 
management). In Mazan there is a huge diversity of orchids and fungi, with many species 
recently new to science (Bamett, 1988). Both areas contain threatened bird species, including 
the grey-breasted mountain toucan Andigena hypoglauca, and mammals including the 
northern pudu Pudu mephistopheles . Careful management is required to maintain the 
recreational benefit of these areas to the people of the region whilst protecting the rich 
biodiversity. A land use zoning approach has been used in Cajas to achieve this. The forests 
are particularly important for watershed protection following widespread timber extraction in 
the area. The Rio Mazan reserve was purchased by the people of Cuenca in order to protect 
their water supply and wildlife (Barnett, 1988). 



Chilla Mountains 

Unconfirmed reports suggest that there are large tracts of cloud forest in these mountains 
which are in El Oro Province (pers.comm, Paul Toyne, 1996). Manu forest is one such area, 
along with Hacienda Buenaventura which is 9km west of Pinas at 900- 1050m. Covering 
c.3000ha, two-thirds is cattle pasture, with humid cloud forest in patches across the rest, 
which at present is protected (Wege and Long, 1995). 



Cordillera Occidental 

Located in North- West Ecuador, the Cordillera Occidental is the western half of two parallel 
rows of peaks and ridges which form the northern end of the Ecuadorian Andes. Many of the 
higher peaks reach almost 6000m with connecting ridges at 4000m. The cordillera contains 
five main areas of cloud forest which, in general lie between 1500 and 3000m. These range 
from unprotected areas on the ridge crests of Volcan Pinchincha and Atacazo, to the legally 
protected privately owned land of the Intag Reserve, and on Cerro Golondrinas (both 
described further below), and areas within the Cotacachi-Cayapas Strict Nature Reserve. In 



165 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



addition there is protection forest on tiie western slope of Volcan Pinchincha. Despite the area 
being a distinct phytogeographic zone (Myers, 1988 in Harcourt and Sayer, 1996) with a 
particular abundance of endemic epiphytes, the Cotacachi-Cayapas Reserve is the only large 
conservation area protecting the moist forests in western Ecuador. In unprotected areas much 
of the natural vegetation has been completely cleared as a result of burning and grazing. 

Cordillera Oriental 

Part of the main Andean range in Central Ecuador, this Cordillera has cloud forests in the 
High Andes zone which is characterised by deep, steep-sided valleys, abundant cliffs an many 
rocky jagged peaks. Due to its elevation (1000-5140m) the area has a subtropical and 
temperate climate despite being in the tropics. Important areas of cloud forest are found in 
Sangay National Park, which is dominated by the Sangay Volcano at 5140m, and in the to- 
date unprotected Zapote Najda Mountains to the south, where a large tract of temperate cloud 
forest remains on the eastern side. In Sangay, montane rain forest occurs below 3750 on the 
wetter eastern slopes. The upper half is of low stamre, c.5m and is dominated by Nuerolepsis 
spp. and associations of Myrtus communis. Below 3000m a 12m canopy dominated by 
Weinmannia spp and Oreopanax spp develops. Ferns, epiphytes and orchids are abundant. 
The fauna of the area is not well studied, but thought to be species rich. Sangay is an 
important habitat of the endangered mountain tapir Tapirus pinchaque which depends on 
cloud forest for shelter, but is rapidly disappearing throughout its range (Downer, 1996). 
These forests are also important in protecting the upper watersheds of many rivers, as run-off 
and erosion is substantial due to the steep terrain and high rainfall. However in the south of 
Ecuador, cloud forest on this mountain range lacks high elevations and snowy peaks resulting 
in differences in the fluvian network and paramo ecosystem compared with mountains in the 
north. Without run-off from snow melt the rivers are fed from subterranean springs formed 
from rainwater filtered through the forest floor. The Podocarpus National Park (described 
below) was established for the protection of large areas of natural cloud forest which protect 
and regulate the water supply in at least four regionally important catchments. Unprotected 
cloud forest is found on adjoining ranges at Angashcola and Lagunillas. 



Podocarpus National Park 

The park covers 146,000ha and has very irregular topography covering altitudes from 950m 
to 3700m (90% above 1500m), and has a wide range of vegetation types. It still retains large 
tracts of undisturbed forest, continuous from upper tropical to temperate zones. This is the 
only large remaining tract of continuous Andean forest in Ecuador. Montane forest is 
dominated by Podocarpus trees {Romerillos spp.) which are the only genus of conifers native 
to Ecuador. Many threatened mammals have been recorded in the park, including mountain 



166 



Latin America : South 



lion Felix concolor, and it is one of tiie richest areas in the world for birds with a total of 
600-700 species including the bearded guan Penelope barbata and white-breasted parakeet 
Pyrrura albipectus. The two main pressures on the park are mining activities and colonization 
along the western and north-western boundaries, and there is some hunting and illegal 
extraction of orchids and medicinal plants (Mansour, J. 1995). 



Cordillera de la Costa 

The Cordillera de la Costa runs up the northern half of Ecuador's western coast. These 
coastal and foothill forests ranging from sea level to 800m are of great biological importance 
due to the large number of species and high levels of endemism they support (Parker and 
Carr, 1992). 

Machililla National Park, the only national park in Western Ecuador, is found in the middle 
portion of this mountain range. It covers small but very important areas of fog and dry forest, 
the most biologically diverse area being Cerro San Sebastian, where small patches of 
fog forest remain on the mountain peaks. There are other remnants of fog and cloud forest on 
the low hills along the coast, which include Cerro Mutiles (fog forest, relatively dry), 
Cabecaras de Bilsa (very wet, cloud condensation), Cerro Pata de Pajaro (fog/cloud forest) 
and Manta Real (cloud forest). With an average lower limit of clouds between 500m and 
600m, moving upward to peaks at 800-lOOOm, the cloud forests in this region are at 
significantly lower altitudes than in other parts of the Andes. However the forests are very 
wet all year round, receiving water from fog drip and cloud condensation. Trunk climbers, 
epiphytes and mosses are profuse and diverse. Locally endemic and threatened tree species 
are present, including Caryodaphnopsis theobromifolia and Carapa guianensis as well as 
truly montane Andean genera. Mammals found in the area include the endangered mantled 
howler monkey Alouatta palliata, jaguars Panthera onca and white-fronted capuchin Cebus 
albifrons, and there are many species of bat, some typical only of undismrbed forest (Parker 
and Carr, 1992). 

In Machililla, as with most of the forests in this area, the main pressures are timber 
harvesting, small-scale agriculmre, livestock grazing and hunting by the local human 
population. The large proportion of land area under private ownership within the park is also 
a problem. In addition to being the last remaining habitat for local endemic and threatened 
species, many of the forests fulfill an important watershed role. All of these remnants require 
improved protection with the involvement of local residents in sustainable management 
programmes. 



167 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Cordillera del Condor 

The Cordillera del Condor run up the south-eastern boundary with Peru. Cloud forest is 
found on ridges close to Chinapinza and Shaime at elevations of 1700 and above. These areas 
are not protected, but are adjacent to the eastern boundary of Podocarpus National Park and it 
has been proposed that they should become part of a buffer zone. This would reduce the 
current pressures of agricultural encroachment, gold mining and other development, and offer 
protection to the Shuar Indians who live in the area. 



Galapagos Islands 

The Galapagos Archipelago is found in the east Pacific Ocean, 1000km west of mainland 
Ecuador. World famous for their endemic fauna and flora, the islands form a National Park 
and Biosphere Reserve. An unusual form of cloud forest is found between 1500m and 1700m 
on the mountains and volcanoes of the larger islands, principally Isabela, Santa Cruz and 
Fernandina. In the dry season (as opposed to the hot season), caused by the Humboldt 
current, a temperamre inversion causes cloud to form. When these are blown towards land, 
and forced to rise, a persistent drizzly mist or ~garua' envelops the highlands. This provides 
sufficient water to support permanent vegetation - only found on these islands (Horwell, 
1988). Characteristic species include Scalesia spp. Psidium galapagenium and Pisona • 
floribunda. 



Orientales Cordillera Real de los Andes 

The eastern Cordillera Real de los Andes run the length of the country. In the north the area 
has steep rugged slopes with deep, narrow valleys in between. Cloud forest is found between 
2000 and 3500m. In addition to the Cayambe-Coca Strict Nature Reserve, areas of cloud 
forest are found in the protection forests on the slopes of Volcan Sumaco and at Playon de 
San Francisco, on a side spur Cordillera de Guacamayo, at Hacienda Aragon, and on Cerro 
Mongus to the north, all of which are not protected. The main tree species include members 
of the genera Guarea, Nectandra, Cedrela and Eugenia. The highly adundant and diverse 
fauna includes mammals such as the spectacled bear Tremarctos ornatus and margay Oncifelis 
wiedii. Birds include the andean condor Vultur gryphus and andean cock-of-the-rock Rupicola 
peruviana. On Sumaco vegetable cultivation by the increasing human population is posing a 
serious threat. 



168 



Latin America : Soiali 



Saraguro 

To the south of the Cajas Mountains, there are a number of cloud forest fragments 
surrounding the city of Saraguro in Loja Province, which include the eastern slopes of the 
Cordillera Cordoncillo. These areas, including El Sauce, Onacapa/Hihufia. Ingapirra. 
Huashapamba, Torre, Cuesta de Caiiabrada, Santiago, El Quingueado are essentially 
fragments although ongoing analysis of aerial photographs suggests they are linked by 
corridors of hilltop forest (Toyne, pers comm, 1996). Generally found between 2400 and 
3200m, all have similar vegetational composition with slight differences due to aspect and 
altimdinal variations. The area is important for threatened avifauna including the red-faced 
parrot Hapalopsittaca pyrrhops, golden-plumed parakeet Leptosittaca branickii and the 
bearded guan Penelope barbata. Only Huashapamba has some protection, as a Community 
Forest jointly owned by three Saraguro Indian communities. However the pressures on these 
forests for fuel and construction wood, and grazing by these communities are great. 



South and West Loja Province 

West of the Eastern Andes, a number of important, unprotected cloud forest fragments are 
found in the south-west of Loja Province. Most are confined to inaccessible steep ravines at 
altihides between 1200 and 2000m, slightly lower than found on the Eastern Andean slopes. 
The areas, including Alamor, Angashcola, Cordillera de Celica. Lagunillas, Sozoranga and 
Vicentino (2500-3 100m) vary in size from tiny patches of less than lOha, to larger blocks of 
several hundred hectares. At Angashcola and Lagunillas threatened bird species include the 
recently described chestnut-bellied cotinga Doliornis remseni along with populations of the 
threatened mountain tapir Tapirus pinchaque and spectacled bear Tremarctos ornatus (Wege 
and Long, 1995). The main pressures on the unprotected sites come from hunting and 
periodic burning of the lower slopes. Little is known about the other sites except that they are 
an important habitat for some of Ecuador's threatened bird species (Wege and Long, 1995). 



169 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



PERU 



Peru possesses the longest mountain chain in the Andes, running North-South down the length 
of the country. This central portion, the Sierra, includes three mountain ranges, the 
Cordillera Occidental, Cordillera Central and Cordillera Oriental, and the valleys and plateau 
country which run between them. This area has been settled for a considerable time, once the 
centre of the ancient Inca empire, and now home to much of the country's Indian population. 
As result of intense and prolonged clearance and cultivation most of the namral forest is 
degraded or entirely lost (Harcourt and Sayer, 1996). 

Cloud forests in Peru occur on the eastern slopes of the Andes, at altimdes between 1500 and 
3500m. Whilst some fragments lie within the Sierra region, a large proportion are found on 
the slopes of the Cordillera Oriental in the transitional high Selva which is a belt of forest 
c.lOOkm wide which runs between the Andes and the lowland rainforest further to the east in 
the Amazon basin. The cloud forests in the High Selva are exceptionally diverse, and contain 
a large number of endemic plants (especially orchids), birds and mammals may of which are 
threatened. However these forests are under intense pressure from poverty-stricken migrant 
Indians moving into the area from the already deforested Sierra in search of land. Relatively 
small portions of forest are legally protected in national parks, reserves and sanctuaries, and 
other categories although in practice the forests are still at risk from unsustainable utilisation. 
Further priority areas which were proposed for the conservation of biodiversity in 1990 
(Harcourt and Sayer 1996), have yet to be gazetted. 

The development of sustainably managed communal reserves in which subsistence hunting 
and extraction by indigenous people are permitted, but logging is forbidden, is required in 
order that the important functions of the cloud forest in conserving both soil and water are 
maintained. 



References 

Butchart, S.H.M., Barnes, R., Davies, C.W.N. . Fernandez, M, and Seddon N. 1995. 

Threatened mammals of the Cordillera de Colan, Peru. Oryx. 29 (4): 275-281. 
Castro, J.M., Silva, V. and Valencia, F.R. 1990. Parque Nacional Huascaran. Plan 

maestro-resumen ejecutivo. Prepared with the support of the Programa de Desarrollo 

Forestal Canada-Peru. 
Collar, N.J., Gonzaga, L.P., Krabbe, N., Madrofio-Nieto, A., Naranjo, L.G., Parker, T.A. 

and Wege, D.C. 1992 Threatened Birds of the Americas: The ICBP/WCN Red Data 

Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, UK. 



170 



Latin America : South 



Collar, N.J., Crosby, M.J. and Stattersfield, A.J. 1994. Birds to watch 2: the world list 

of threatened birds. BirdLife Conservation Series No. 4. BirdLife International, 

Cambridge, UK. 
Harcourt, C.S. and Sayer, J. A. (Eds.) 1996. The Conservation Atlas of Tropical Forests: 

The Americas. Simon and Schuster. 
Leo, M. 1980. First field study of the yellow-tailed woolly monkey. Oryx 15 (4): 386-389. 
Narvaez, R.S. 1989. Rio Abiseo National Park. World Heritage nomination. Officina 

Nacional de Evaluacion de Rescursos Naturales. 1976. Mapa ecologica del Peru v 

guia explicativa. ONERN, Lima. 
Young, K.R., Church, W.B., Leo, M. and Moore, P.F. 1994. Threats to Rio Abiseo 
National Park, Northern Peru. Ambio 23 (4-5): 312-314. 
Young, K. and Leon, B. 1989. Vegetacion del a zona alta del Parque Nacional del Rio 

Abiseo. Revista Forestal del Peru 15 (1): 3-20. 
Wege, D. and Long, A. 1995. Key Areas for Threatened Birds in the Neotropics. BirdLife 

Conservation Series No. 5. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK. 



171 



PERU: CLOUD FOREST SUMHARY 



Date: 07/07/97 



Cloud Forest Region 



Cloud Forest Site 







Protected* 






Yes/Mo7 


9°45'S/ 


77''28'U 


Yes 


9°42'S/ 


76''a6'U 


No 


4°35'S/ 


79°WU 


No 


5°06'S/ 


79°23'U 


No 


9°20'S/ 


7t,°t.3'V 


No 


8°12'S/ 


77°09'W 


No 


06°U'S/ 


78°45'U 


Yes 


d-il'S/ 


77-46 -U 


No 


7°32'S/ 


77.29. u 


Yes 


09°16'S/ 


75.59. u 


Yes 


10°22'S/ 


75''21'U 


Yes 


13°34'S/ 


72''52'W 


Yes 


12°12'S/ 


72''35'U 


Yes 


12''30'S/ 


71°40'U 


Yes 


S-id'S/ 


77-41 -U 


No 


5°35'S/ 


78-22 'U 


No 


5°44'S/ 


78-03 -U 


No 


«'30'S/ 


78-14 'U 


No 



Cordi Hers Blanca 

Cordillera Central and Oriental 



Cordillera Oriental de los Andes 



Cordillera de Coldn 



Cordillera del C6ndor 



HuascarSn 

Bosque Unchog 

Cerro Chacas 

Cerro Chinguela 

Cerros de Sira 

Cimpang and Utcubamba 

Cutervo 

Leimebamba 

Rio Abiseo 

Tingo Maria 

Yanachanga ChemiUen 

Ampay 

Macchu Picchu 

Manu 

Abra Patricia 

Northern Cordillera del Colin 

Southern Cordillera del Colin 

Rfo Comaina and Rfo Cenepa 



Total No. of 
CF Regions: 5 



Total No. 
CF Sites= 



of 
18 



Total No. of CF Sites with 
an element of protection 



■Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Peru 



Cordillera Blanca 

Located to the west of the main Andes range in the Sierra Central, the Cordillera Blanca is the 
highest tropical mountain range in the world with 27 snow-capped peaks above 6000m. Cloud 
forest is found in the valleys of the highest peak. El Huascaran (6768m), between 2500 and 
3000m, as relict Polylepis-Gynoxys woodlands. The forests form part of an important habitat 
for bird species such as the andean condor Vultiir gryphus and mammals including the 
spectacled bear Tremarctos ornatus. Despite being a National Park, Biosphere Reserve and 
World Heritage Site, confusion over land tenure rights exists and Huascaran faces threats 
from boundary encroachment, including spread of fire from pasture burning and overgrazing, 
heavy hunting pressure, and from a major highway along the western side of the reserve 
(Castro et al 1990). 



Cordillera Central and Oriental 

Small fragments of cloud forest are found scattered along the eastern slopes of both the 
Cordillera Central and Oriental. Typically it is found between 1800 and 2500m, although it 
extends up to 3600m on the higher parts of the range, although much has already been felled 
or is being actively removed (Best and Clarke, 1991; in Wege and Long, 1995). This is 
despite the fact that some of the cloud forest is within protected areas, such as Cutervo, Rio 
Abiseo (described below), Tingo Maria and Yanachanga Chemillen. These contain some of 
the most important forest relicts which are dominated with tree species of Cinchona, Cedrela 
and Podocarpus. Both these areas and those which lack any protection which include Bosque 
Unchog, Cerros Chacas, Cerros de Sira (which is connected to the East Andes by a low 
ridge) and Cerros Chinguela, Leimebamba, Cumpang and Utcubamba, are important habitats 
for a number of threatened bird species and mammals such as the ocelot Felis pardalis and the 
giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactila. They also play an important role in protecting the 
watersheds of rivers which run down into the Amazon basin. However, these forests are all 
under heavy pressure from fuelwood cutting, grazing and clearance for agriculture. A further 
constraint is that those areas which have been set aside for protection are too small to ensure 
the long-term viability of the ecosystems within them. 

Rio Abiseo The Rio Abiseo National Park (total area 274,000ha) is simated in the northern 
half of the Cordillera Oriental, to the west of Huicungo on the eastern slopes which run down 
to the Amazon Basin. It includes the Abiseo River Basin and covers part of the watershed for 
two other major rivers which are tributaries of the Amazon. Montane forests cover 53% of 
the park. Forests above 2900m spend most of the year shrouded in fog caused by the cooling 



174 



Latin America : South 



of air uplifted from the Amazon basin (Young et al. 1994). Some of the area is renowned for 
its primary cloud forest, which is reputed to be part of the Huallaga Pleistocene Refugia 
surviving from before the last glaciation. This has led to a great species diversity and a high 
degree of endemism (Narvaez, 1989). There is a high abundance of epiphytes with a dense 
understorey of palms, vines, Bromeliaceae and Orchidaceae. Tree species include Chusquea 
spp. and Cedrela spp. (Young and Leon, 1989). The cloud forest supports a huge diversity of 
birds, including nine threatened endemics and the South American pochard Netta 
erythrophthaltna which is in danger of extinction. Notable mammals include the endemic 
yellow-tailed woolly monkey Lagothrix flavicauda, a species originally thought to be extinct 
by 1926 (Leo, 1980), and protected only in this park. In 1990 the Park was declared a World 
Heritage Site in recognition of its unique namral and cultural resources. However continued 
degradation threatens the important archeological sites, and the cloud forest has been under 
pressure from hunting (now greatly reduced), and grazing pressure and burning from adjacent 
areas. In addition there are plans to build a highway passing very close to the Park, but to 
date funding has not been secured (Young et al. (1994). 



Cordillera Oriental de los Andes (South) 

To the south, and further east into the Amazon basin, cloud forest is found on the eastern 
slopes of the Cordillera protecting watersheds of the rivers below. In addition to patches in 
Ampay and Macchu Picchu - some of which may already have been lost, cloud forest of 
remarkable floral and faunal diversity is found within the Manu National Park. Ampay 
contains the endemic tree species Podocarpus glomeratus. whilst almost 200 tree species have 
been recorded in a one hectare plot near Cocha Cashu in Manu. It is also believed to be rich 
in orchids, although the flora is poorly known. Declared a World Heritage Site in 1987, 
ManiJ has a remarkable diversity of fauna, many of which are endemic. 



Cordillera de Colan 

This mountain range is in Amazonas Department, northern Peru. It is semi-isolated, 
surrounded by lowlands except where it is joined to the Cordillera Central in the south-east. 
Cloud forest is found both in the north, where it is heavily degraded, and in the south, 
particularly the south-east where large areas remain, including Abra Patricia where the forest 
appears to be untouched due to its inaccessibility. Montane cloud forest with canopy height of 
20-25 metres is found at altitudes between 1800 and 2500m, with elfm ridge-top forest above, 
up to c. 2700m. The area experiences an unusually cool local climate, with frequent rainfall 
which results in stunted forest at relatively low and thus accessible altitudes (Collar et al., 
1992). Tree species are not well documented, but include Cedrella spp, along with abundant 
moss and epiphytes and many tree ferns. The forest is an important habitat for bird species, 
five of which are threatened with extinction, including the military macaw Ara militaris 



175 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



(Collar er al. 1994). Several threatened mammal species have also been recorded, of most 
significance the yellow-tailed woolly monkey Lagothrix flavicauda, Andean night monkey 
Aotus micronax and spectacled bear Tremarctos ornatus. The recently rediscovered 
(previously thought extinct) woolly monkey is found only in undisuirbed humid montane 
forest above 1800m. It is also found in Rio Abiseo National park, but in both areas its 
survival is threatened by heavy hunting and loss of habitat, in addition to hunting, threats to 
the cloud forest include cutting of Cedrella for timber, and clearance for cattle grazing and 
lucrative drug cash crops (Davies et al. 1994, in Wege and Long, 1995). Despite a number of 
earlier recommendations for protection of this area, to date it is unprotected. Butchart et al. 
following survey work in the area in 1994 conclude that the conservation simation is critical 
with many threatened and important species dependent on an area with rapid rates of 
deforestation. Urgent action should be taken to establish an effective protected area in the 
southern part of the range (Butchart et al. 1995). 



Cordillera del Condor 

This range of mountains spread down from the south of Ecuador with a small portion in the 
north-west Peru. The forests protect the watersheds of the Comaina. Cenepa and Maranon 
rivers, with cloud forest at between 1200 and 1500m. Little is, known about the fauna 
although there are important bird species, including the orange-throated tanager 
Wetmorethraupis sterrhopteron. Whilst part of the area is included in the Aguaruna Indian 
Territory, no legal protection exists and the forests are under great pressure as both 
Ecuadorian and Peruvian governments have encouraged local people to settle in the area, to 
support respective territorial claims. 



176 



Latin America : South 



VENEZUELA 



Broadly speaking there are three main mountain groups in Venezuela: the Andes in the north 
west of the country, the Cordillera de la Costa to the north along the Caribbean coast and the 
Guayana Highlands in the south and on the border with Brazil. The Coastal Cordillera, which 
is often viewed as an extension of the Andes, is in fact much older (beginning to uplift in the 
late Cretaceous) and its geological history is quite different (Steyermark, 1979), The Guayana 
Shield comprises some of the oldest Precambrian mountain formations which range in age 
from 2000 to 1800 million years (Huber and Frame 1989). 

Venezuela is rich in tropical montane cloud forests. The largest tracts are found along the 
Andes and the Cordillera de la Costa, but there are also important areas in southern 
Venezuela and some outlying patches on Margarita Island and the Paraguana Peninsula. 
Cloud forests are generally encountered at altimdes between 800 and 2500m, although there is 
much variation within the country. "Typical" cloud forest is found between 1800-2400m in 
the Andes and would fall within the Upper Montane Rain Forest category of Grubb (1974). 
However, the Cordillera de la Costa and isolated mountains (Cerro El Copey and Cerro Santa 
Ana) show cloud forest at much lower elevations (even as low as 750m), due to the so-called 
Massenerhebung effect (Grubb, 1971; Grubb and Whitmore 1966). The Guayana shield also 
has cloud forest at a variety of elevations (including the "typical" 1800-2400m) depending on 
orographic factors. Finally, it is worth mentioning the microphyllous or nanophyllous elfin 
forests which are found locally at the summits of small isolated mountains, on tepui summits 
in Guayana and at the upper limit of forest (3000-3800) in the Andes (and locally in the 
higher mountains of the Coastal Cordillera). This latter forest corresponds to Grubb 's 
Subalpine Forest and typical genera include Befaria (Ericaceae), Brunellia (Brunelliaceae), 
Clusia (Clusiaceae), Gynoxys (Asteraceae), Miconia (Melastomataceae), Rhamnus 
(Rhamnaceae) and Weinmannia (Cunoniaceae) (Grubb, 1974; Prance, 1989). 

These cloud forests are extremely rich in endemism, both in flora (Huber and Frame 1988) 
and fauna (Cracraft, 1985, Steyermark, 1979). 

Regarding threats, protection and management, the cloud forests of Venezuela fall easily into 
two groups based on a north-south division. Those of northern Venezuela are relatively to 
extremely well known, and many of them are legally protected; there is intense pressure on 
these forests and legal provisions are not always sufficient to guarantee protection. Most of 
the forests outside protected areas have been degraded or destroyed by encroachment, 
agriculture (including drug production) and livestock raising. One of the most significant 
areas outside protection is the eastern slopes of the Andes, particularly as this zone has been 
largely converted throughout the rest of the Andes. 



177 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



In comparison the cloud forests of southern Venezuela are not particularly well studied; man\ 
of them also fall within existing protected areas, although the management of these areas is 
minimal. However there is very little threat to these forests. 

References 

Berry, P.E., B.K. Hoist and K. Yatskievych (Eds.) 1995. Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana. 

Volume I: Introduction. Missouri Botancical Garden and Timber Press. Portland, 

USA. 320 pp. + maps. 

Braun, A. 1994. Palmas de la Selva Nublada de Venezuela. Impresos Luis Urbina. 

Caracas, Venezuela. 54 pp. 
Collar, N.J., L.P. Gonzaga, N. Krabbe, A. Madroiio, L.G. Naranjo, T. Parker and D.C. 

Wege 1992. Threatened Birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book (Third 

Edition, Part 2). International Council for Bird Preservation. Cambridge. UK. 
Collar, N.J., M.J. Crosby and A.J. Stattersfield 1994. Birds to Watch 2: Vie World List of 

Threatened Birds. BirdLife Conservation Series No. 4. BirdLife International. 

Cambridge, UK. 
Cracraft, J. 1985. Historical biogeography and patterns of differentiation within the South 

American avifauna: areas of endemism. Pp. 49-84 in Buckley, P. A. et al. (Eds.) 

Neotropical Ornithology. Ornithological Monographs No. 36. American 

Ornithologists' Union. Washington, USA. 
Eisenberg, J.F. 1989. Mammals of the Neotropics. The Northern Neotropics. Volume 1. 
Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Suriname, French Guiana. Chicago University Press. 
Chicago, USA. 449 pp. 
Fjeldsa, J. and N. Krabbe 1990. Birds of the High Andes. Zoological Museum, University of 

Copenhagen & Apollo Books. Svendborg, Denmark. 876 pp. 
Grubb, P.J. 1971. Interpretation of the "Massenerhebung" effect on tropical mountains. 
Nature 229:44-45 

Grubb, P.J. 1974. Factors controlling the distribution of forest types on mountains: New facts 
and new perspective. Pp. 13-46 in Flenley, J.R. (Ed.) Altitudinal Zonation in Malaysia. 
Trans. 3rd Aberdeen-Hull Symposium on Malaysian Ecology, Univ. Hull, Dept. Geography, 
Miscellaneous Series 16. 
Grubb, P.J. and T.C. Whitmore 1966. A comparison of montane and lowland rainforest in 

Ecuador II. The climate and its effects on the distribution and physionomy of the 

forests./. Ecol. 51:567-601. 
Hoyos, J. 1985. Flora de la Isla de Margarita, Venezuela. Sociedad y Fundacion La Salle de 

Ciencias Naturales. Caracas, Venezuela. 927 pp. 
Huber, O. and C. Alarcon 1988. Mapa de la Vegetacion de Venezuela. Ministerio del 
Ambiente y de los Recursos Naturales Renovables and BIOMA. Caracas, Venezuela. Map. 



178 



Latin America : South 



Huber, O. and D. Frame 1989. Venezuela. Pp. 362-374 in Campbell, D.G. and H.D. 

Hammond (Eds.) Floristic Inventory of Tropical Countries. New York Botanical 

Gardens and World Wildlife Fund. 
Huber, O. (Ed.) 1992. El Macizo del Chimantd, Escudo de Guayana, Venezuela: Un Ensayo 

Ecologico Tepuyano. Oscar Todtman. Caracas, Venezuela. 
Huber, O. 1995. Guayana Venezolana: Mapa de Vegetacion. CVG-EDELCA and Missouri 

Botanical Garden. Caracas, Venezuela. Map. 
Johnston, J.R. 1909. Flora of the islands of Margarita and Coche, Venezuela. Conirib. Gray. 

Herb. Harv. Univ. 37:1-149. 
MARNR. 1986. Estudio integral del medio fisico-natural del Cerro Turimiquire. Edos. 
Anzoategui, Monagas y Sucre, Venezuela. Serie Informes Tecnicos. Zona 12yl3/IT/199. 
Ministerio del Ambiente y de los Recursos Naturales Renovables. Barcelona-Mamrin, 
Venezuela. 133 pp. 
Prance, G.T. 1989. American Tropical Forests. Pp. 99-132 in Leith, H. and M.J. A. Werner 

(Eds.). Tropical Rain Forest Ecosystems. Biogeographical and Ecological Studies. 

Ecosystems of the World 14B. Elsevier. Amsterdam, Netherlands. 
Rodriguez, J. P. and F. Rojas-Suarez 1995. Libro Rojo de la Fauna Venezolana. Provita & 

Fundacion Polar. Caracas, Venezuela. 444 pp. 
Schubert, C. and O. Huber 1990. The Gran Sabana: Panorama of a Region. Lagoven 
Booklets. Caracas, Venezuela. 107 pp. 

Sharpe, C.J. (in press). Una lista de las aves del Parque Nacional Peninsula de Paria. 
Sociedad Conservacionista Audubon de Venezuela. 

Steyermark, J. A. 1966. El Cerro Turumiquire y la region oriental adyacente. Acta Bot. 
Venez. 1(3-4): 104-168. 
Steyermark, J. A. y G. Agostini 1966. Exploracion botanica del Cerro Patao y zonas 

adyacentes a Puerto Hierro, en la Pem'nsula de Paria, Edo. Sucre. Acta Bot. Venez. 

l(2):7-80. 
Steyermark, J. A. 1973. Preservemos las cumbres de la Pem'nsula de Paria. Def. Nat. Am 

2:33-35. 
Steyermark, J. A. 1975. Flora de la Sierra de San Luis (Edo. Falcon, Venezuela) y sus 
afmidades fitogeograficas. /Icm Bof. Venez. 10(1/4): 131-218. 
Steyermark, J. A. 1977. Areas de bosques hiimedos de Venezuela que requieren proteccion. 

Pp. 83-95 in: Hamilton, L.S. J. A. Steyermark, J. P. Veillon & E. Mondolfi (Eds.). 

Conservacion de los Bosques Hiimedos de Venezuela. Sierra Club & Consejo de 

Bienestar Rural. Caracas, Venezuela. 181 pp. 
Steyermark, J. A. 1979. Plant refuge and dispersal centres in Venezuela: their relict and 
endemic element. Pp. 185-221 in: K. Larsen and L.B. Holm-Nielsen (Eds.). Tropical Botany . 
Academic Press. London, UK and New York, USA. 
Steyermark, J. A. and G.C.K. Dunsterville 1980. The lowland floral element on the summit 

of Cerro Guaiquinima and other cerros of the Guayana Highland of Venezuela. J. 

Biogeogr. 7:284-303. 



179 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Steyermark, J. A. y F. Delascio 1985. Contribuciones a la flora de la Cordillera de Perija, 
Edo. Zulia- Venezuela. Bol. Soc. Venez- Ciencias Nat. 40(143): 153-325. 

Sugden, A. 1986. Montane vegetation and flora of Margarita Island. J. Arnold Arboretum 
61 -A?,! -22,2. 

Tamayo, F. 1941. Exploraciones botanicas en la Peninsula de Paraeuana, Estado Falcon. BoL 

Soc. Venez. Ci. Nat. 7:1-90. 

Viloria, A.L. 1995. Perija: Visiones y detalles de la historia, la naturaleza y el hombre. Draft 

manuscript. ^PARA PUBLIC AR DONDE? 

Wege, D.C. and A.J. Long 1995. Key Areas for Threatened Birds in the Neotropics. BirdLife 

Conservation Series No. 5. BirdLife International Cambridge, UK. 



180 



VENEZUELA: CLOUD FOREST SUMMARY 



Cloud Forest Region 



Cloud Forest Site 



Cerro El Copey 

Cerro Santa Ana 

Cordillera de la Costa Central 



Cordillera de la Costa Oriental 



Cordillera de los Andes 



Duida Subcentre 



Gran Sabana 



Cerro El Copey 
Cerro Santa Ana 
Cerro Plati lion 
El Avila 


iroo'N/ 

11°49'N/ 

9°53'N/ 

10°32'N/ 


W°00'W 
69°56'U 
67°32'U 
66°40'W 


Guatopo 
Hato Jaguar 
Henri Pittier 


10°05'N/ 
10°24'N/ 
10°28'N/ 


66°29'U 
68°55'U 
67°51'W 


Macarao 


10°22'N/ 


67°09'U 


Nirgua 
Palmichal 


/ 
10°22'N/ 


67°53'W 


Pico Codazzi 


10°25'N/ 


67°19'U 


San Esteban 


10°20'N/ 


68°00'U 


Sierra de Aroa 


10°25'N/ 


68''50'U 


Cerro Azul 


10°40'N/ 


62°00'U 


Cerro Humo 


10°41'N/ 


62°38'W 


Cerro Peoni'a 


10°11'N/ 


6A°07'W 


Cerro Turumiquire 


10°07'N/ 


63°52'W 


El Guacharo (Cerro Negro) 


10°12'N/ 


63°36'U 


El Tama 


7°31'N/ 


72''15'U 


El Ztmbador Forest 


/ 




Guaramacal 


9°11'N/ 


70°10'U 


La Carbonera/San Eusebio 


/ 




Paramos Holino y Rio Negro 


S'SO'N/ 


71°30'U 


Paramos del Batallon y La Negra 


7°54'N/ 


72''00'U 


Sierra de Barbacoas 


9°30'N/ 


70°11'U 


Sierras de la Culata y Nevada 


8°44>N/ 


71''05'U 


Terepaima 
Yacambu 


9°53'N/ 
9''40'N/ 


69"'16'W 
69"'32'W 


Autana 


/ 




Cerro Aracamuni 


1 




Cerro Aratitiyope 


1 




Cerro Avispa 


1 




Cerro Guaiquinima 


1 




Coro-coro 


1 




Duida-Marahuaca 


3°29'N/ 


65°30'U 


Guanacoco 


/ 




Guanay 


/ 




Huachamacari 


/ 




Ichun 


/ 




Jaua 


/ 




La Neblina 


ri4'N/ 


65°53'U 


Marutani 


/ 




Paru 


/ 




Sarisarinama 


/ 




Serrania Vinilla 


/ 




Serrania del Tigre 


/ 




Sierra Curupira 


/ 




Sierra Imera 


/ 




Sierra Haigualida 


/ 




Sierra Parima 


/ 




Sierra Tapirapeco 


/ 




Sierra Unturan 


/ 




Sipapo-Cuao 


/ 




Yapacana 


/ 




Yavf 


/ 




Yutaje 
Auyan-Tepui 


/ 

5°49"N/ 


62-35 'W 


Cerro Venamo 


/ 




Chimanta 


5-23 'N/ 


62°08'U 


Kukenan 


S-ZI'N/ 


60°58'U 



Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

No 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

Yes 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

Yes 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

Yes 



Cloud Forest Region Cloud Forest Site 



Date: 31/07/97 





Protected* 




Yes/No? 


5°U'N/ 60"'47'W 


Tes 


5°58'N/ 61°47'U 


Yes 


10°04'N/ 72°45'U 


Yes 


inO'N/ 69°40'W 


Yes 



Roraima 

Sierra de Lema 
Sierra de Perija Sierra de Perij^ 

Sierra de San Luis Sierra de San Luis 



Total No. of Total No. of Total No. of CF Sites with 

CF Regions: 9 CF Sites= 64 an element of protection = 31 



* 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Venezuela 



Cerro El Copey 

On this isolated mountain found on the Isla de Margarita, the annual precipitation reaches 
only lOOOmm. but nevertheless a scrubby cloud forest is found from about 700m to the 
summit at 930m (Hoyos, 1985). 



Cerro Santa Ana 

An isolated mountain located on the Peninsula de Paraguana on the Caribbean coast in the 
north of the country, Santa Ana supports cloud forest at low altimdes up to 830m. A 
characteristic and endemic understorey palm is Geonoma paraquanensis (Braun, 



Cordillera de la Costa Central 

The Cordillera de la Costa Central extends from the Yaracuy-Barquisimeto Depression in the 
west to the Unare Depression in the east. The highest peak is Pico Naiguata in El Avila at 
2765m, north of Caracas. Cloud forests are frequent between 1000 and 2000m, sometimes 
down to 700m (Huber, 1988). Specific sites within this region include Cerro Platillon, El 
Avila, Guatopo, Henri Pittier, Nirgua, Palmichal, San Esteban, Hato Jaguar and Sierra de 
Aroa. 

The Cordillera de la Costa, unlike the Andes, shows a significant relationship with the 
Guayana, with elements such as Froesia including the rare and endemic tree species Froezia 
venezuelensis (Quinaceae), Macrocentrum, Gloeospermum, Stephanopodium, Elvasia, 
Cespedesia and Roucheria (Steyermark, 1979). The dominant tree of the transitional cloud 
forest through the Cordillera is the endemic Gyranthera caribensis and at El Avila, 
Podocarpus salcifolius and Catoblastus praemorsus are characteristic (Amend, 1991). Typical 
palms include the emergent Ceroxylon interrupt C. klopstockia and Socratea altissima and 
understorey species such as Geonoma spp. and Hyospathe pittieri (Braun, 1994), and Bactris 
and Euterpe spp. (Huber. 1986). These cloud forests are also rich in epiphytes including 
Orchidaceae, Bromeliaceae, Gesneriaceae, Ericaceae, Pteridophyta. Characteristic endemic 
bird taxa include Pyrrhura hoematotis, Pionus sordidus, Synallaxis castanea, Grallaria 
Cloricata, Phlloscartes venezuelanus, Tangara rufigenis (Cracraft, 1985). The antpitta 
Grallaria excelsa, found elsewhere only in the Andes also occurs. Amongst the mammals, the 
threatened cats Leopardus tigrinus and L. wiedii occur. 



184 



Latin America : South 



As with the Cordillera de los Andes, many of the cloud forests in this region have at least 
partial effective protection, falling within National Park and other protected area boundaries. 
Pressures and management issues in El Avila are well described in Amend (1991). Some 
areas however, such as Guatopo still contain valuable cloud forest which is not protected 
(Steyermark, 1979). 



Cordillera de la Costa Oriental 

The Cordillera de la Costa Oriental extends from the Unare Depression to the tip of the 
Pem'nsula de Paria, and consists of two massifs: the Caripe Highlands and the Peninsula de 
Paria. The Caripe area includes Cerro Peom'a, Cerro Turumiquire (2596m) and El Guacharo 
(Cerro Negro). These forests include an endemic montypic genus, Croizatia (Euphorbiaceae) 
(Steyermark, 1977) and Turumiquire holds 37 endemic plant species while El Guacharo has 
38 (Steyermark, 1979). The threatened Campylopterus ensipennis, Margarornis tatei, 
Diglossa venezuelensis and Basileuterus griseiceps occur, all but the first Venezuelan 
endemics. Main peaks on the Pem'nsula de Paria are the Cerros de Humo (1308m), Patao, 
Olvido and Azul. Cloud forest is split into a western section on Cerro de Humo, and on the 
other three peaks to the east. Due to the maritime location and the Massenerhebung effect, 
cloud forest is found at 750m on the southern slopes and even lower on the north. These 
forest support 29 endemic plant species including Besleria hirsutissima, B. mortoniana, 
Heliconia steyermarkii , Elvasia steyermarkii , Topobea steyermarkii. Piper pariense, Ixora 
agostiana and threatened endemic birds suchas Hylonympha macrocerca, Myioborus pariae, 
Camylopterus ensipennis, Margarornis tatei, Basileuterus griseiceps, and Diglossa 
venezuelensis. Apart from the endemic element, there is some affinity with Trinidad 
(Camylopterus ensipennis) and with the tepuiparrotlet Platycentrum clidemoides, and the fer- 
de-lance Lachesis muta from the Guayana Highlands (Wege and Long, 1995). 



Cordillera de los Andes 

This region covers the north-eastern branch of the Andes from the border with Colombia to 
the Yaracuy-Barquisimeto Depression in Edos. Lara and Yaracuy. It includes the highest 
altitudes in Venezuela, to just over 5000m, and important areas of cloud forest in the Tama 
upland, Merida Andes and Trujillo-Pormguesa-Lara. Cloud forest sites include Guaramacal, 
Sierras de la Culata y Nevada, Sierra de Barbacoas, Sierra Nevada, Terepaima and Yacambu. 
Tama and the Merida Andes are separated by the 40km arid Tachira depression, a fact which 
has resulted in notable endemisms and some considerable differences between the two biotas. 
Typical cloud forest tree species include Podocarpus (P. rospigliosi, P. montanus, P. 
pendulifolius , P. Coleif alius) , Escallonia, Weinmannia, Rubus, Chusquea. In Tama the fauna 
and flora show more affinity with the Colombian Cordillera Oriental than with the rest of the 
Venezuelan Andes: 145 species and 39 subspecies of flowering plant as well as 6 species of 



185 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



bird reach their north-eastern limit here. The frog Aielopus tamaense is endemic, and 
threatened mammals include Dinomys branickii. Threatened bird species include Pauxi paiixi. 
Haplopsittaca amazonina. Grallaria cucullata and the endemic Grallaria chtlwnia (Wege and 
Long. 1995). In the Merida Andes threatened birds include Cotiirnicops notam. and the 
endemic Hemispingus goeringi (Wege and Long, 1995), and there are a number of 
endangered endemic frog species such as Atelopus mucubajensis. A. oxyrhyncluis . A. pirangoi 
and A. sorianoi (Rodriguez and Rojas-Suarez, 1995). This area also includes Zumbador- 
Paramos Batallon y la Negra, where there are abundant epiphytes and bromeliads. such as 
Greigia (Bromeliaceae), and La Carbonera/San Eusebio which is an unusual Andean forest 
which has developed on fairly flat terrain and contains magnificent specimens of Podocarpus 
spp., and rare and endemic species such as Psychotria aristeguietae, and Oreopanax veillonii. 
In addition the eastern slopes of the Andes hold thousands of hectares of cloud forests with 
many rare and endemic species such Guettarda bernardii. In Trujillo-Portuguesa-Lara, in 
particular there are many cloud forests with rare plants such as the trees Talaiima 
dodecocandra and Simira myriantha, and rare orchids, such as Cyrtidium rhomboglossum. 
Many other Andean flora reach their easternmost limit here (Steyermark, 1977; No. 32). 
Characteristic mammalian endemics of the cloud forests of the north-eastern Andes (including 
Colombia) are Marmosa dryas, Cryptotis thomasi, spectacled bear Tremarctos ornatus. 
Nasuella olivacea, Oryzomys minutus (also occurs in the Cordillera de la Costa), Aepeomys 
lugens, Thomasomys aureus, Chilomys instans and Agouti taczanowskii (Eisenberg, 1989). 

Many of the cloud forest areas described above have at least partial effective protection, 
falling within National Park boundaries. 



Duida Subcentre 

The Duida Subcentre (and Gran Sabana) is part of the Guayana Highlands, the largest 
mountain formation in the country, which are a Pre-Cambrian sandstone formation 
characterised by the mountain structures known as "tepuis". Cloud forests are located on the 
mid and upper slopes of these mountains (where these are not sheer vertical) and - in the case 
of several tepuis - on the summits themselves. The Duida area is found further west and south 
than the Gran Sabana, moving close to the border with Brazil. It includes the Cerro 
Guaiquinima (1700m), the summit of which is 40% forested (Steyermark and Dunsterville, 
1980), and the large tepui massifs of Jaua, Sarisarifiama and Guanacoco, which reach 2000m, 
along with to the south-east Ichiin and Marutani (1500m) and to the north Sierra Maigualida 
(2400m) (Huber and Alarcon, 1988). In addition it includes part of the mountainous area of 
eastern Edo. Bolivar and the northern Edo. Aamazonas (1600-2400m). The main massifs are 
Sipapo-Cuao and Autana in the west (including the southerly Cerro Aracapo, Cerro Gallinero, 
etc.); and Guanay, Coro-coro. Yutaje and Yavi in the north (Huber and Alarcon, 1988). To 
the centre, Pani, Duida-Marahuaca, Huachamacari which range from 1600 to 2800m, and the 



186 



Latin America : South 



outlying Yapacana (1200m) and Serrama del Tigre are found. The Sierra Parima extends 
along the eastern frontier of Edo. Amazonas with Brazil and includes low mountains (to 
150dm) (Huber and Alarcon, 1988). Moving to the extreme south of Venezuela onthe border 
with Brazil, the most significant mountains are Sierra de la Neblina (at 3045m, the highest 
point in the Guayana Highlands), Cerro Avispa, Cerro Aracamuni, Sierra Imeri, Sierra 
Unturan, Serrani'a Vinilla, Cerro Aratitiyope, Sierra Tapirapeco and Sierra Curupira. The 
Sierra de la Neblina is the richest and most diverse area of Pantepui (Huber and Alarcon, 
1988). Bird species endemic to the Duida Subcentre include Philydor hylobius (Cacraft, 
1985), and the threatened Guaiquinima Redstart Myioborus cardonai is endemic to Cerro 
Guaiquinima (Collar et al. 1994). The frog Minyobates steyermarki is endemic to Yapacana. 
Many of these forests are found within protected areas, either national parks (including the 
spectacular 3 million ha Canaima National Park and World Heritage Site) or the Tepuis 
Nature Monument which includes all tepuis. However, the latter often includes only the 
summits. Despite legal protection, some of these cloud forests have already been degraded by 
mining activities. For example, although the Jaua-Sarisarinama National Park legally protects 
the two tepuis massifs of Jaua, Sarisarinama, there are no local personnel and the area is 
currently being invaded by miners. 



Gran Sabana 

The Gran Sabana (and the Duida Subcentre) is part of the Guayana Highlands, the largest 
mountain formation in the country, which are a Pre-Cambrian sandstone formation 
characterised by the mountain structures known as "tepuis". Cloud forests are located on the 
mid and upper slopes of these mountains (where these are not sheer vertical) and - in the case 
of several tepuis - on thesummits themselves. The Gran Sabana itself includes the high plain 
between the low tepuis of Sierra de Lema and Cerro Venamo in the north and Sierra 
Pakaraima in the south; its eastern limit is the border with Guyana and in the west it limts 
with Ptari- tepui north of Kavanayen (Huber and Alarcon, 1988). Although thearea is 
typically a forest-savanna mosaic, and the presence of true cloud forest is questionnable, there 
are some areas which have high montane forests which are covered in orographic mists 
during a large part of the year. The surrounding region also includes the Eastern Tepuis; Uei- 
tepui, Roraima (2723m), Kukenan, Yuruam'-tepui, Ilii-tepui and Tramen-tepui (Huber and 
Alarcon, 1988), and the Auyan-tepui and Chimanta massifs as well as the outlying tepuis 
Ptari-tepui, &a7CSororopan-tepui, Los Testigos, Uaipan-tepui, Aprada-tepui, Upuigma-tepui 
and Angasima-tepui. It also includes the north- facing slopes of the low tepuis Sierra de Lema 
(La Escalera) andCerro Venamo. Altitude generally ranges between 1500 and 2650m. The 
flora of these mountains is extraordinary with a 10-50% endemism per mountain (Steyermark 
1977). The Auyan-tepui/Chimanta complex is one of the richest centres in Pantepui (Huber 
and Alarcon, 1988). The Sierra de Lema-Venamo area alone has numerous endemics 
including Phainantha myrteoloides, Platycarpum rugosum, Sloanea crass if olia, Guzmania 
venamensis, G. steyermarkii, Ladenbergia venamoensis, Cottendorfia gracillima. Solarium 



187 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



rufistellatum, S. puberuloba, and Cyphomandra bolivarensis although not all of these are 
exclusive to cloud forest habitats. Representative endemic avian taxa of the Gran Sabana 
Subcentre are Crypturellus ptaritepui , Pyrrhura egregia, Campylopterus hyperthrus. Lipaitgiis 
streptophorus, Todirotrum russatum, and Spordiornis rusticus (Cracraft. 1985). The 
threatened Crypturellus ptaritepui is apparently endemic to Ptari-tepui (Collar et al. 1994). 
Characteristic mammalian endemics of the cloud forests of the Guayana highlands are 
Mannosa tyleriana and Sciurusflammifer (Eisenberg, 1989). Endemic amphibians include 
frogs of the genus Stefania (3 spp.), the frog Otophryne robusta and Oreophrynella quelchii. 
Many of these forests are found within protected areas, either national parks (including the 
spectacular 3 million ha Canaima National Park and World Heritage Site) or the Tepuis 
Namre Monument which includes all tepuis. However, the latter often includes only the 
summits. Despite legal protection, some of these cloud forests have already been degraded by 
mining activities. 



Sierra de Perija 

A spur of the Colombian Cordillera Oriental, found on the borderwith Colombia this 
mountain range reaches over 3600m. Cloud forests are found between 1200 and 2500m. The 
flora has a strongColombian affinity (e.g. Peperomia discilimba, Psychotria erythrocephala) 
and is related closely to that of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. A relationship with the 
Cordillera de la Costa is shown by the presence of Psiguria racemosa, a species otherwise 
restricted to the former mountain range. Thereis strong endemism including Miconia 
limitaris, M. perijaensis, Calea perijaensis, Senecio perijaensis, Chimarrhis perijaensis, 
Pterogastra glabra, Baskevillea venezuelana Pleurothallis hypocrita. Pterichis latifolia. 
Spermacoce perijaensis (Steyermark, 1979). Endemic butterflies include the browns 
Lymanopoda altaselva,Pedaliodes cesarense, P. suspiro, P. vallenata, P.tyrrheoides and P. 
zuleta (Rodriguez and Rojas-Suarez, 1995). Characteristic endemic bird taxa include 
Metallura iracunda and a number of subspecies (Cracraft, 1985). Threatened birds Cinclude 
Clytoctantes alixi, although this has not been seen for many years. The oncilla Leopardus 
tigrinus and Oryzomys minutus alsooccur. The Venezuelan portion of the range is particularly 
important for conservation as the Colombian sector has been largely deforested. Although 
much of the area is protected by the Perija National Park, cultivation of coca, poppies and 
marihuana is rife and theSierra is being deforested from the top down, as well as the bottom 
up (by ganaderia), a rather unique simation. Cordillera de los Andes This region covers the 
north-eastern branch of the Andes from the border with Colombia to the Yaracuy- 
Barquisimeto Depression in dos. Lara and Yaracuy. It includes the highest altitudes in 
Venezuela, to just over 5000m, and important areas of cloud forest in the Tama upland, 
Merida Andes and Trujillo-Pormguesa-Lara. Cloud forest sites include Guaramacal, Sierras 
de la Culata y Nevada, Sierra de Barbacoas, Sierra Nevada, Terepaima and Yacambu. Tama 
and the Merida Andes are separated by the 40km arid Tachiradepression, a fact which has 



188 



Latin America : Soiiih 



resulted in notable endemisms and some considerable differences between the two biotas. 
Typical cloud forest tree species include Podocarpus (P. rospigliosi. P. montanus. P. 
pendulifolius , P. oleifolius), Escallonia, Weinmannia, Rubus.Chusquea. In Tama the fauna 
and flora show more affinity with the Colombian Cordillera Oriental than with the rest of the 
Venezuelan Andes: 145 species and 39 subspecies of flowering plant as well as 6 species of 
bird reach their north-eastern limit here. The frog Atelopus tamaense is endemic, and 
threatened mammals mcXudQDinomys branickii. Threatened bird species include Paitxi paiixi. 
Haplopsittaca amazonina, Grallaria cucullata and the endemic Grallaria chthonia (Wege and 
Long, 1995). In the Merida Andes threatened birds include Coturnicops notata, and the 
endemic Hemispingus goeringi (Wege and Long, 1995), and there are a number of 
endangered endemic frog species such as Atelopus mucubajensis, A. oxyrhynchus. A. pirangoi 
and A. sorianoi (Rodriguez and Rojas-Suarez, 1995). This area also includes Zumbador- 
Paramos Batallon y la Negra, where there are abundant epiphytes and bromeliads, such as 
Greigia (Bromeliaceae), and La Carbonera/San Eusebio which is an unusual Andean forest 
which has developed on fairly flat terrain and contains magnificent specimens of Podocarpus 
spp., and rare and endemic species such as Psychotria aristeguietae, and Oreopanax veillonii. 
In addition the eastern slopes of the Andes hold thousands of hectares of cloud forests with 
many rare and endemic species such as Guettarda bernardii. In Trujillo-Portuguesa-Lara, in 
particular there are many cloud forests with rare plants such as the trees Talauma 
dodecocandra and Simira my riant ha, and rare orchids, such as Cyrtidium rhomboglossum . 
Many other Andean flora reach their easternmost limit here (Steyermark, 1977; No. 32). 
Characteristic mammalian endemics of the cloud forests of the north-eastern Andes (including 
Colombia) are Marmosa dryas, Cryptotis thoinasi, spectacled bear Tremarctos ornatus, 
Nasuella olivacea, Oryzomys minutus (also occurs in the Cordillera de la Costa), Aepeomys 
lugens, Thomasomys aureus, Chilomys instans and Agouti taczanowskii (Eisenberg, 1989). 
Many of the cloud forest areas described above have at least partial effective protection, 
falling within National Park boundaries. 



Sierra de San Luis 

The Sierra de San Luis reaches 1300m and its humid forests are separated from both the 
Andes and the Cordillera de la Costa by 120km of arid lands. This isolation, coupled with an 
unusual limestone topography, has led to the evolution of endemic species such as Geononia 
paraguanensis (Palmae), Epidendrum garcianum (Orchidaceae), Urticularia bintingii, 
Melanea sanluisensis , and Asketanthera steyermarkii, amongst others. The avifauna is more 
closely related to the Cordillera de la Costa than the Andes. 



189 




PART THREE 

SOUTH EAST ASIA 

Australia 

Brunei Darussaiam 

Cambodia 

China 

India 

Indonesia 

Lao PDR 

Malaysia 

Myanmar 

Papua New Guinea 

Philippines 

Sri Lanka 

Thailand 

Viet Nam 



South East Asia 



AUSTRALIA 



Tropical rain forest, including montane forest, in Australia occupies a very small part of the 
northeast of Queensland. In the hills especially on the Atherton Tableland, much has been 
removed for cattle farms resulting in scattered patches of forest. In 1988. logging of the rain 
forest was banned and the bulk of the remaining forested areas were protected. Pressures of 
the forest include fires escaping from sugar-cane fields (Collins et al. 1991; Davis et ai. 
1995; WCMC unpubl. data). 



References 

Collins, N.M., Sayer, J. A. and Whitmore, T.C. (Eds.). 1991. The conservation atlas of 

tropical forests: Asia and the Pacific. lUCN, Gland & WCMC, Cambridge. Simon & 

Schuster, New York, pp.335. 
Davis, S.D., Heywood, V.H. and Hamilton, A.C. (Eds.). 1995. Centres of plant diversity: 

a guide and strategy for their conservation. Vol.2 Asia, Australasia and the Pacific. 

WWF and lUCN. pp.578. 
Richards, P.W. 1996. The tropical rainforest: an ecological study. 2nd ed. Cambridge 

University Press. 



193 



r y 




.:^^i 



'^^'^ 



DC ■«' 

H 
CO 



AUSTRALIA: CLOUD FOREST SUMMARY 



Date: 27/06/97 



Cloud Forest Region 



Cloud Forest Site 



Protected* 
Yes/No? 



Great Dividing Range MCF 



Mount Bartle Frere MCF 
Mount Bellenden Ker MCF 



17°35'S/145°4a'E 
17''43'S/145''52'E 



No 
No 



Total No. of 
CF Regions= 1 



Total No. of 
CF Sites: 2 



Total No. of CF Sites uith 
an element of protection ■ 



* 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Australia 



Great Dividing Range 

The Great Dividing Range lies roughly parallel to the coast and between Townville and 
Cooktown, an altitude of 900m is reached in many areas. Upper montane rain forest may be 
found in die highest sites on the range, for example on Mount Bartle Frere (1612m) the 
highest peak, and also on Mount Bellenden Ker (1561m) (Collins et ai Eds.). 1991; Davies 
etaL (Eds.). 1995). 



196 



South Easl Asia 



BRUNEI DARUSSALAM 



Forest exploitation in Brunei has been limited in the small wealthy Sultanate of Brunei 
Darussalam. About 59% of the land area, therefore, is still under primary forest. The only 
montane forest in Brunei is found in Batu Apoi Forest Reserve and covers 1.2 per cent of the 
land area (Collins et al. (Eds.), 1991; Davis et al. (Eds.), 1995). 



References 

Collins, N.M., Sayer, J. A. and Whitmore, T.C. (Eds.). 1991. Jlie conservation atlas of 

tropical forests: Asia and the Pacific. lUCN, Gland & WCMC, Cambridge. Simon & 

Schuster, New York, pp.335. 
Davis, S.D., Heywood, V.H. and Hamilton, A.C. (Eds.). 1995. Centres of plant diversity : 

a guide and strategy for their conservation. Vol.2 Asia, Australasia and the Pacific. 

WWF and lUCN. pp.578. 



197 



BRUNEI DARUSSALAH: CLOUD FOREST SUMMARY 



Date: 27/06/97 



Cloud Forest Region 



Cloud Forest Site 



Protected* 
Yes/No? 



Batu Apoi Forest Reserve, Ulu 



Bukit Belalong 
Bukit Lesong 
Bukit Tudal 
Gunung Pagon 
Gunung Retak 



4°29'N/115°12'E 

/ 

/ 
4°20'N/115''19'E 

/ 



Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 



Total No. of 
CF Regions^ 1 



Total No. of 
CF Sites= 5 



Total No. of CF Sites with 
an element of protection = 5 



• 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Brunei Darussalam 



Batu Apoi Forest Reserve, Ulu Temburong 

The only montane forest in Brunei is found in the Bam Apoi Forest Reserve. It develops at an 
altiuide of between 700-900m, with upper montane forest generally developing between 
1000m and 1200m. Montane forest may be found on the following five peaks: Gunung Pagon 
(1850m), Gunung Retak (1618m), Bukit Lesong (1192m), Bukit Tudal (1181m) and Bukit 
Belalong (915m). This forest is valued as a catchment area for three main rivers: the 
Temburong, Temawai and Belalong and is protected in the Ulu Temburong/Batu Apoi 
Primary Conservation Area. The montane forest is said to include plants of potential 
economic importance as ornamentals, which would need to be harvested with care. The 
Reserve is known to have a rich fauna with many of northern Borneo's larger mammals 
represented. Potential threats to the area include increased visitor pressure (Collins et al. 
(Eds.), 1991; Davhetal. (Eds.), 1995). 



200 



South East Asia 



CAMBODIA 



The plain of the Lower Mekong River, which comprises much of Cambodia, is densely 
populated and mostly under rice cultivation. Upland areas lies in the southwest of the country, 
namely in the Chaines des Cardamomes and Chaines de I'Elephant (Davis et al. (Eds). 
1995). 



References 

Davis, S.D., Heywood, V.H. and Hamilton, A.C. (Eds.). 1995. Centres of plant diversity : 

a guide and strategy for their conservation. Vol.2 Asia, Australasia and the Pacific. 
WWF and lUCN. pp.578. 



201 



CAHBOOIA: CLOUD FOREST SUMMARY 



Date: 27/06/97 



Cloud Forest Region 



Cloud Forest Site 



Protected* 
Yes/No7 



Chaines des Cardamomes 



Phnoffl Aural 



12°01't(/104'11'E 



Total No. of 
CF Regions: 1 



Total No. of 
CF Sites= 1 



Total No. of CF Sites with 
an element of protection = 



* 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category 1-VI criteria 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Cambodia 



Chaines des Cardamomes 

Phnom Aural (1813m) and Phnom Tumpor (1563m) are the two highest points in the 
Cardamom Mountains. This is, however, a poorly known area largely due to military 
conflicts, but it is thought that Phnom Aural, in particular, could be important for endemism 
and may contain a small area of cloud forest (Davis et al. (Eds.), 1995; WCMC unpubl. 
data). 



204 



South East Asia 



CHINA 



The tropical zone of China is located in the southwest of the Province Yunnan and in the 
islands of Hainan and Taiwan. The natural vegetation of this tropical zone includes montane 
evergreen forests and cloud forests on the highest peaks. The faunal affinities of this zone are 
largely Indo-Malayan. Much of the natural vegetation, however, has been destroyed or 
disturbed by man. The main threats to the remaining areas are deforestation, shifting 
cultivation, fire, population pressure, hunting, fuel collection and plantations. Tropical 
montane cloud forests, as such, are not thought to occur in Yunnan or Taiwan, although in 
Yunnan, between July and August, cloud level is high at above 2750m on the western slope 
of the Diancang Shan range (west of Dali) and between 2800-3500m on the eastern side of the 
range. The cloud level becomes still higher, above 3400m on the south slope of the 
Yulongxue Shan (near Lijiang) (Collins et al. (Eds.), 1991; Shimizu, 1991; Ohsawa, 1993; 
Davis ^r a/. (Eds.), 1995; Mackinnon ^f a/. 1996). 



References 

Collins, N.M., Sayer, J. A. and Whitmore, T.C. (Eds.). 1991. The conservation atlas of 

tropical forests: Asia and the Pacific. lUCN, Gland & WCMC, Cambridge. Simon & 

Schuster, New York, pp.335. 
Davis, S.D., Heywood, V.H. and Hamilton, A.C. (Eds.). 1995. Centres of plant diversity: 

a guide and strategy for their conservation. Vol.2 Asia, Australasia and the Pacific. 

WWF and lUCN. pp.578. 
Mackinnon, J., Meng Sha, Cheung, C, Carey, G., Zhu Xiang and Melville, D. 1996. A 

biodiversity review of China. WWF-International. 
Ohsawa, M. 1993. The montane cloud forest and its gradational changes in southeast Asia. 

In: Tropical montane cloud forests: proceedings of an international symposium (L.S. 

Hamilton, J.O. Juvik & F.N. Scatena, eds.). East-West Center, Hawai'i. pp. 163-170. 
Shimizu, Y. 1991. Forest types and vegetation zones of Yunnan, China. Journal of the 

Faculty of Science (University of Tokyo), Section 3,15:1-71. 



205 



CHINA: CLOUO FOREST SUMMARY 



Date: 27/06/97 



Cloud Forest Region 



Cloud Forest Site 



Protected* 
Yes/No7 



Hainan Island 



Uuzhi Mountain 



18''57'M/109°42'E 



Yes 



Total No. of 
CF Regions' 1 



Total No. of 
CF Sites= 1 



Total No. of CF Sites with 
an element of protection = 1 



* 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category 1-VI criteria 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: China 



Hainan Island 

In the middle and south of Hainan are mountains that are generally over 500m. with about 80 
peaks higher than 1000m. Mount Wuzhi is the highest peak at 1867m. Wuzhi Mountain is 
included in the Wu Zhi Shan Nature Reserve. Elfin mossy forests are found above an altimde 
of 1600m. In these forests, the trees are about 5m high and there are abundant mosses and 
lichens (Mackinnon et al. 1996). 



208 



South East Asia 



INDIA 



One of the main area of tropical rain forest in the Indian Peninsula is found in the Western 
Ghats, which fringes the Arabian Sea coastline. This area contains montane forest (Collins et 
al. (Eds.), 1991). 



References 

Collins, N.M., Sayer, J. A. and Whitmore, T.C. (Eds.). 1991. The conservation atlas of 

tropical forests: Asia and the Pacific. lUCN, Gland & WCMC, Cambridge. Simon & 
Schuster, New York, pp.335. 

FAO. 1989. Classification and mapping of vegetation types in tropical Asia. FAO, Rome. 



209 



INDIA 

500 km 




INDIA: CLOUD FOREST SUHMARY 



Date: 07/07/97 



Cloud Forest Region 



Cloud Forest Site 





Protected* 




Yes/No7 


10°08'N/ 77°12'E 


Yes 


ir22'N/ 76°4A'E 


Yes 


10°U'N/ 77°23'E 


Yes 



Western Ghats 



Anamalai Hills 
Nilgiri Hills 
Palni Hills 



Total No. of 
CF Resions= 1 



Total No. of 
CF Sites= 3 



Total No. of CF Sites with 
an element of protection ^ 3 



* 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCH Management Category I-Vl criteria 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: India 



Western Ghats 

The Western Ghats contain evergreen and semi-evergreen high elevation (above 1400m) 
climax forests. One source estimates the area of montane forest in the Western Ghats to be 
greater than 4000sq.km. Some of the largest areas of montane forest are found in the Nilgiri. 
Palni and Anamalai Hills. Doda Betta (2636m), of the Nilgiri Hills, and Anai Mudi (2695m), 
of the Anamalai Hills, are the two highest mountains in the Western Ghats (Collins er al. 
(Eds.), 1991; FAO, 1989; WCMC unpubl. data). 



212 



South East Asia 



INDONESIA 



Indonesia has a total territory of about 780 million hectares. It comprises a 4500km long 
chain of islands stretching from Sumatra in the west to Irian Jaya in the east and is located 
between the continents of Asia and Australia and the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The total area 
of upper montane forest in Indonesia is estimated to be 29,029sq.km. i.e. 2.5% of Indonesia's 
natural forest. The majority of upper montane forest (77.2%) occurs in Irian Jaya. One of the 
values of these forests includes protection of watersheds and catchment areas and production 
of forest produce. Although Indonesia has high levels of species richness and endemism. it 
also has the world's longest list of species threatened with extinction. The main threats come 
from a large, growing and internally mobile human population, much of which is rural and 
engaged in agriculture (Veevers-Carter, 1978; FAO, 1979; Ministry of Forestry Republic of 
Indonesia, 1990; Collins et al. (Eds.), 1991; Soenartono Adisoemarto (Ed.), 1992). 



References 

Collins, N.M., Sayer, J. A. and Whitmore, T.C. (Eds.). 1991. The conservation atlas of 

tropical forests: Asia and the Pacific. lUCN, Gland & WCMC, Cambridge. Simon & 

Schuster, New York, pp.335. 
Davis, S.D., Heywood, V.H. and Hamilton, A.C. (Eds.). 1995. Centres of plant diversity: a 

guide and strategy for their conservation. Vol.2 Asia, Australasia and the Pacific. 

WWF and IUCN.'pp.578. 
FAO. 1978. Way Mual and Way Nua Nature Reserves, Central Seram, Maluku. FO: 

INS/73/013 Project Field Report 8. 
FAO. 1979. Nature conservation and wildlife management Indonesia terminal report. 

FO:DP/INS/73/013. 
FAO. 1981. Proposed Manusela National Park management plan 1982-1987; Field report of 

UNDP/FAO National Park development project INS/78/061. FO /INS/78/061 Field 

report 15. 
Laumonier, Y., Gadrinab, A., Purnajaya and Blasco, F. 1983. International map of the 

vegetation and environmental conditions: Southern Sumatra. Instimt de la Carte 

Internationale du Tapis Vegetal/Seameo-Biotrop. 
Laumonier, Y., Purnadjaya, Setiabudhi and Blasco, F. 1986. Central Sumatra. Instimt de la 

Carte Internationale du Tapis Vegetal/Seameo-Biotrop. 
Laumonier, Y., Purnadjaya, Setiabudhi and Blasco, F. 1986. International map of the 

vegetation and of environmental conditions: Northern Sumatra. Institut de la Carte 

Internationale du Tapis Vegetal/Seameo-Biotrop. 



213 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Long, A.J. 1993. Restricted-range and threatened bird species in tropical montane cloud 

forests. In: Tropical montane cloud forests: proceedings of an international 

symposium (eds. L.S. Hamilton, J.O. Juvik and F.N. Scatena). pp. 47-65. East-West 

Center. 
MacKinnon, J., Smiet, F. and Artha, M.B. 1982. National consenmion plan for Indonesia. 

3. Java and Bali. UNDP/FAO Field Report 36, Bogor, FAO. 
Ministry of Forestry Republic of Indonesia. 1990. The Indonesian tropical rain forest 

conservation areas. Ministry of Forestry Republic of Indonesia. 
Nooteboom, H.P. 1987. Vegetation and flora. In: Report of the 1982-1983 Bukit Raya 

Expedition (ed. H.P. Nooteboom). pp. 61-66. Rijksherbarium. 
Smiet, A.C. 1992. Forest ecology on Java: human impact and vegetation of montane forest. 

J. ofTrop. Ecol. 8:129-152. 
Soenartono Adisoemarto (Ed.). 1992. Indonesian country study on biological diversity. 

Prepared for the United Nations Environment programme (UNEP) a study under the 

work programme for environment cooperation between the Republic of Indonesia and 

the Kingdom of Norway. 
Thiollay, J.M. and Meyburg, B.U. 1988. Forest fragmentation and the conservation of 

raptors: a survey on the island of Java. Biol. Cons. 44:229-250. 
UNDP/FAO. 1981. Kerinci-Seblat Proposed National Park preliminary management plan 

1982-1987. Field report of UNDP/FAO National Park Development Project 

INS/78/061. 
Richards, P.W. 1996. The tropical rainforest. 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press. 
Whitten, A.J., Sengli Damanki, Jazanul Anwar and Nararuddin Hisyam. 1984. The ecology 

of Sumatra. Gadjah Mada University Press. 
Whitten, A.J., Muslimin Mustafa and Henderson, G.S. 1987. The ecology of Sulawesi. 

Gadjah Mada University Press. 
Werner. W.L. 1986. A comparison between two tropical montane ecosystems in Asia 

Pidurutalagala (Ceylon/Sri Lanka) and Pangrango-Gede (Java). Mountain Research 

and Development. 6:335-344. 
Whitmore, T.C. 1975. Tropical rain forests of the far east. Clarendon Press. 
Veevers-Carter, W. 1978. Nature conservation in Indonesia. PT Intermasa, Jakarta. 



214 



INDONESIA: CLOUD FOREST SUMMARY 



Cloud Forest Region 



Cloud Forest Site 



Protected* 
Yes/No7 



Barisan Mountain Range 



Gunung Patung Massif 

I ban Range 
Herkele Ridge 
Mountains of Buru 
Mountains of Java and Bali 



Mountains of Lesser Sunda Islands 
Mountains of Sulawesi 



New Guinea Gondii I era/Pegunungan 



Abong-Abong (W°20'N/096°45 

Bandahara 03°46'N/097°47 

Bepagut 0A°20'S/103°29 

Daun OS'ZZ'S/IOZ-I? 

Denpo (W°G4'S/103°06 

Gedang 2°44'S/101°53 

Hulutiasen 05°03'N/095°38 

Hulunilo / 

Kapal 4-51 -N/ 96''53 

Kemiki 4°56'N/ 96°18 

Kerinci r42'S/10ri7 

Lasung Tunkut / 

Lerabu 04°05'N/ 97°29 

Leuser 03°46'N/097''12 

Malintang Sago C0°23'S/100°38 

Marapi C0°20'S/100°26 

Hasurai 02°29'S/101''52 

Patai 04°14'S/103°20 

Seblat 02°52'S/1Q2''08 

Si Habu-Habu / 

Singgalang 00''23-S/100''19 

Sopo Ucim / 

Sorik Merapi 00''38'N/099°33 

Sunbing 03°25'S/10r47 

Talamau 00°04'N/099°59 

Talang 02''03'S/10r21 

Tujuh 01''42'S/101°23 

Gunung Palung 01°12'S/nO°09 

Gunung Panti 01°04'S/110°13 

I ban Range 03°11 'N/IIS'IS 

Gunung Binaya 03°10'S/129°28 

Gunung Kelapat Muda 03°18'S/126''13 

Gunung Agung 08°20'S/115°28 

Gunung Kawi 7°57'S/112°15 

Gunung Semeru 08°05'S/112°43 

Gunung Titu / 

Haliman 06°42'S/106°26 

Pangrango 06°48'S/106°56 

Gunung Rinjani 08°24'S/116°25 

Bukit Gandadiuata 02°45'S/119°25 

Bukit Kambuno 02°20'S/120°05 

Gunung Dua Saudara / 

Gunung Katopasa On5'S/121°25 

Gunung Klabat 1°29'N/125''10 

Gunung Lompobatang 05°22'S/119°58 

Gunung Haling 00°45'N/120°46 

Gunung Mekongga 03°39'S/121°15 

Gunur,g Nokilalaki 0r21'S/120°12 

Gunung Ogoamas 00°39'N/120°16 

Gunung Rantemario 03°23'S/120°01 

Gunung Roroka Tinbu 01°16'S/120''19 

Gunung Tambusisi 01°38'S/121°22 

Gunung Tangkoko / 

Gunung Tokala 01''36'S/121°41 

Gunung Uaukana / 

Gunung Daam 04°23'S/138°25 

Gunung Leonard Daruin 04°02'S/136°45 

Puncak Jaya/Mount Carstensz 4°05'S/137°09 

Puncak Mandala 04°43'S/140°16 

Puncak Tricora 04°17'S/138°39 



No 

Yes 

No 

No 

No 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

No 

No 

Yes 

No 

No 

Yes 

No 

No 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

No 

No 

No 

No 

Yes 

No 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

No 

Yes 

No 

No 

Yes 

No 

No 

Yes 

Ho 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

No 

No 

No 

No 

Yes 

No 

No 



Date: 07/07/97 



Cloud Forest Region 



Cloud Forest Site 



Schuaner Mountain Range and Muller 
Tamrau Mountains and Arfak 
Van Rees Mountains and Foja 



Puncak Wisnimurti 

Bukit Baka 

Bukit Raya 

Gunung Lina 

Kwoka 

Van Rees Mountains and Foja 



04°32'S/139°56'E 
00°42'S/112"'25'E 
00°38'S/112°43'E 
0r27'S/133°49'E 
00°40'S/132°24'E 
2°32"S/138°46'E 



Protected* 
Yes/No7 



No 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

No 



Total No. of 
CF Regions^ 12 



Total No. of 
CF Sites= 66 



Total No. of CF Sites with 
an eleflient of protection = 29 



* 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Indonesia 



Barisan Mountain Range 

The Barisan Mountain Range forms the backbone of the island of Sumatra and includes many 
active volcanoes. On the higher mountains a cloud zone forms at about 2000m and the 
average height of upper montane forest is 2100m to 3000m. These forests have a low even 
canopy, epiphytes are usually abundant and the trees are generally crooked. This forest is 
characterised by the order Coniferae, particularly Dacrycarpus imbricatus and the families 
Ericaceae and Myrtaceae, particularly Leptospermum flavescens. At least eleven species of 
mammals are more or less restricted to the Sumatran mountains. These include the grey fruit 
bat {Aethalops alecto), Sumatran rabbit {Nesolagus netscherii), volcano mouse (Mus 
crociduroides), giant Sumatran rat {Sundamys infraluteus) , Edward's rat {Leopoldamys 
edwardsi), Hoogerwerf's rat (Rattus hoogerwerfl), Kerinci rat {Maxomys hylomy aides), 
Kerinci rat (Maxomys inflatus), Kinabalu rat (Rattus baluensis), mountain spiny rat 
(Niviventer rapii) and the serow (Capricornis sumatraensis) . The following sites are thought 
to contain cloud forest: Hulumasen (2315m); Kemiki (2800m); Kapal (2783m); Abong-Abong 
(2961m); Lembu (3043m); Leuser (3404m) and Bandahara (302m) both contained by Leuser 
National Park; Si Habu-Habu (2310m); Sopo Ucim (2199m); Sorik Merapi (2145m); Lasung 
Tunkut (2274m); Talamau (2912m); Singgalang (2877m); Marapi (2891m); Malintang Sago 
(2262m); Talang (2597m); Kerinci (3800m), Tujuh (2604m), Hulunilo (2469m). Sumbing 
(2507m), Masurai (2933m), Gedang (2446m) and Seblat (2383m) all contained by Kerinci'^ 
Seblat National Park; Daun (2492m); Dempo (3159m); Patah (2817m); and Bepagut (2732m). 
Many of these forests are valued for their rich flora and fauna but are threatened by 
encroachment (UNDP/FAO, 1981; Laumonier et a!., 1983; Whitten, 984; Laumonier et al. 
1986; WCMC unpubl. data). 



Gunung Palung Massif 

This is an isolated massif in West Kalimantan in the island of Borneo. The two mountains, 
Gunung Palung (1160m) and Gunung panti, are protected by the Gunung Palung national 
Park. On the summits of these mountains a stunted bryophyte-encrusted upper montane rain 
forest is found. The dominant tree species are Vaccinium spp. (Ericaceae) and Leptospermum 
spp. (Myrtaceae). Pitcher plants (Nepenthes spp.), numerous species of orchids and ferns, and 
many species of mosses also occur (Davis et al. (Eds.), 1995). 



218 



South East Asia 



Iban Range 

Much of the Iban Mountain Range is included in the Sungai Kayan-Sungai Mentarang Nature 
Reserve. Upper montane forest is found above 1500m, with orchid-rich mossy forest 
occurring in river gorges. The area is valued as an area of supreme importance for 
conservation (Davies et al. (Eds.), 1995; WCMC unpubl. data). 



Merkele Ridge 

The Merkele Ridge is in the centre of the island of Seram, in the Moluccas in Indonesia. The 
highest mountain is Gunung Binaya (3027m) and it is included in the Manusela Wai Nua/Wai 
Mual National Park. Elfin/moss forest is found above 1500m on this ridge of mountains. The 
trees are small in this forest type and covered with moss and epiphytes. Orchids and ferns are 
common. The fauna on Seram is influenced by the Australian and Asian zoogeographical 
regions. Endemic species include two species of forest rat only found in high altitudes. Four 
bird species are confined to montane cloud forest in Seram {Zoothera monticola) and two bird 
species' main habitat is cloud forest (Bradypterus castaneus and Gymnophaps tnada) (FAO, 
1978; FAO, 1981; Long, 1993). 



Mountains of Burn 

Gunung Kelapat Muda, contained by the Gunung Kelapat Muda Game Reserve, is the highest 
mountain (2114m) in the island of Bum, in the Moluccas in Indonesia. One bird species is 
confined to tropical montane cloud forest in Bum {Zoothera dumasi) and two species' main 
habitat is cloud forest {Gymnophaps tnada and Bradypterus castaneus) (Collins et al. (Eds.), 
1991; Long, 1993). 



Mountains of Java and Bali 

Namral forests on Java, a densely populated island, have generally been cleared. Most of the 
forest remnants are confined to mountain areas, where montane vegetation is found from 
approximately 1500m to 2400m. The transition to mossy upper montane forest in west Java 
takes place above about 1650m. Mossy forest is best developed in west Java, as the climate 
becomes increasingly dry to the east. Fourteen bird species use cloud forest as their main 
habitat in the Javan and Balinese mountains. Mossy forest is found on Pangrango (Cibodas) 
National Park. This Park provides a refuge for a number of endangered and endemic taxa. It 
is also valued for research and tourism. Management constraints include agricultural 
encroachment and tourist pressure. Also in west Java is Gunung Halimun (1929m) contained 
by the Gunung Halimun National Park. South of Bandung there are 19 volcanoes of 1700m to 



219 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



2800m covered by less than lOO.OOOha of montane forest in 13 to 15 separate patches, nearly 
all above 1400m. Some of this forest is included in the Cagar Alam Gunung Tilu (Mount Tilu 
Nature Reserve). In central Java few forest patches remain inspite of the presence of several 
high mountains. The highest peak in Java is Gunung Semeru (3676m), in east Java. This area 
is included in the Bromo-Tengger-Semeru National Park. Also thought to contain mossy 
forest in east Java is Gunung Kawi. In Bali, mossy forest is thought, to occur on the north- 
west side of Gunung Agung (3142m) (Whitmore, 1975; MacKinnon et al., 1982; Werner, 
1986; Thiollay & Meyburg, 1988; Smiet. 1992; Richards, 1996; WCMC unpubl. data). 



Mountains of Lesser Sunda Islands 

East of Java and Bali, the Lesser Sunda Islands are seasonally very dry, owing to a dry 
monsoon which blows off Australia during the middle months of the year. As a result, little if 
any mossy forest is found in these mountains, except perhaps on Gunung Rinjani (3726m - 
contained by Gunung Rinjani National Park) on the island of Lombok (Whitmore. 1975; 
WCMC unpubl. data). 



Mountains of Sulawesi 

In Sulawesi, a belt of cloud often forms around mountains at about 2000m. These high blocks 
of land are largely found in central and northern Sulawesi. Upper montane forest occurs in 
these areas between approximately 2400-3000m. Characteristic of the upper montane forest 
are members of the family Ericaceae such as Rhododendron (19 species are endemic to 
Sulawesi), Vaccinium (13 endemic species) and Gaultheris (two endemic species). The largest 
mammal of mountain forests is the mountain anoa Bubalus quarlesi, which is generally 
solitary. Other mountain mammal species include the shrew-rats {Tateomys rhinogradoides, 
T.macrocercus and Melasmothrix naso). which are known only from mountainous areas in 
Sulawesi and the Philippines where they live in mossy upper montane forest. Mountains with 
upper montane forest include: Gunung Lompobatang (2871m - contained by Gunung 
Lompobatang Protection Forests), where the upper montane forest is dominated by 
Leptospermum. Gunung Rantemario (3450m - contained by Pegunungan Latimojong 
Protection Forests) the highest mountain in Sulawesi, where upper montane forest can be 
found from about 2150, with proper upper montane forest occurring above 2650m. At 2650m 
Rhododendron bushes and some species of Phyllodadus predominate. Gunung Mekongga 
(2799m), Bukit Gandadiwata (3074m) in the Quarles mountains, Bukit Kambuno (2950m) and 
Gunung Tambusisi (2422m), where upper montane forest, with tall shrubs of mainly 
Vaccinium, is found above 1700m. Gunung Tokala (2630m), Gunung Katopasa (2835m) and 
Gunung Nokilalaki (2280m - contained by Lore Lindu National Park), where above 2000m, 
Agathis is absent and the most common trees are Tristania, Lithocarpus and Castanopsis. 
Gunung Roroka Timbu (2450m - contained by Lore Lindu National Park), Gunung Waukana 



220 



South East Asia 



(3127m), Gunung Ogoamas (2565m). Gunung Maling (2443m). Gunung Klabat. and Gunung 
Tangkoko (1109m) and Gunung Dua Suadara (1351m) both contained in Dua Saudara Nature 
Reserve. Clearance for permanent and shifting cultivation is a threat to many of these areas 
(Whitten et al., 1987; WCMC unpubl. data). 



New Guinea Cordillera/Pegunungan Maoke 

This mountain range runs the length of New Guinea (see Papua New Guinea). Seven bird 
species (Eurostopodus archboldi, Astrapia mayeri, Cnemophilus macgregorii, Epimachus 
meyeri, Ptiloprora guisei, Androphobus viridis and Eulacestoma nigropectus) are confined to 
cloud forest in this mountain range and 13 other bird species use cloud forest on this range as 
their main habitat. Puncak Jaya (Mount Carstensz) at 4884m is the highest mountain not only 
in New Guinea, but also in the whole of Indonesia. It is contained by the Gunung Lorentz 
Nature Reserve. At the lower limits of montane forest on this mountain, Castanopsis is the 
dominant tree, replaced at higher elevations by moss-covered, monotypic stands of Notofagus 
and evenmally by dense conifer forests comprising Podocarpus, Dacrydium, Dacry carpus and 
Papuacedrus. The area is valued, in particular by tribal groups, for its rich biological 
resources. It is, however, threatened by mining, logging, petroleum exploration, road 
building, transmigration and tourism in that high-altitude vegetation is very vulnerable to 
trampling. Other high peaks in this range in Irian Jaya include Gunung Leonard Darwin 
(4234m)? Gunung Daam (4922m), Puncak Tricora (4750m). Puncak Wisnumurti (4595m) and 
Puncak Mandala (4702m) (Long, 1993; Davis et al. (Eds.), 1995; WCMC unpubl. data). 



Schwaner Mountain Range and Muiler Mountain Range 

These Mountain Ranges span the provincial borders between Central, West and East 
Kalimantan in the island of Borneo. Bukit Raya (2278m) and Bukit Baka (1617m) are two 
peaks in the Schwaner Mountain Range which are included in the Bukit Baka-Bukit Raya 
National Park. Montane forest in this area occurs above 1000m. From about 1600m upper 
montane forest is encountered, again with various Ericaceae, such as Rhododendron and 
Vaccinium, and Guttiferae, as well as Phyllodadus hypophyllus (Phyllocladaceae), 
Elaeocarpus (Elaeocarpaceae), Embelia (Embeliaceae), Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae) and tree 
ferns. The most serious threats to the forests are logging and road construction (Nooteboom, 
1987; Davis et al. (Eds.), 1995; WCMC unpubl. data). 



221 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Tamrau Mountains and Arfak Mountains 

These mountains are found in the Vogelkop or Bird's Head Peninsula, where there is a high 
incidence of endemic flora and fauna. In addition, three bird species use the cloud forest on 
these mountains as their main habitat (Rallina rubra, Psittacella modesta and Pliloprora 
perstriata). Peaks include Kwoka (3000m) and Gunung Lina (3100m). On the Arfak 
Mountains there is persistent cloud cover around 1700m. Nothofagus forest occurs from 
1500m to 2800m. Other common tree genera are Castanopsis and the conifers Dacrycarpus. 
Dacrydium, Podocarpus, Libocedrus and Araucaria cunninghamii . Ericaceae and orchids 
(such as Dendrobium spp. used by the Vogelkop bowerbird Ambyornis inortatus to decorate 
its bowers), treefems, gingers, palms and selaginellas are also common. Above 2400m. the 
forest floor and tree trunks are covered in a thick layer of mosses, such as Sphaghum and 
Dawsonia. A Nature Reserve is sited in the mountains (Pegunungan Arfak Namre Reserve) 
(Long, 1993; Davis et al. (Eds.), 1995; WCMC unpubl. data). 



Van Rees Mountains and Foja Mountains 

These mountains are north of the Pegunungan Maoke in Irian Jaya. Botanically, much of this 
region is very poorly known and is difficult to access. It is, however, thought to contain some 
mossy forest. Threats to the area include petroleum exploration and logging. The area is 
home to nomadic hunter-gatherers and valued for its rich faunal diversity (Davis et al. 
(Eds.), 1995; WCMC unpubl. data). 



222 



South East Asia 



LAO PEOPLE'S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC 



Lao is a mountainous country with steep areas throughout the north of the countr\' including 
Phou Bia (2829m) the highest mountain, the Chaine Armamitique forming the border with 
Viet Nam and the Bolovens Plateau in the south rising to over 1500m. Tropical montane 
cloud forests may be located in any of these three regions. The hills of northern Lao, above 
1000m, are characterised by hill evergreen forest, usually a dense forest of Fagaceae and 
Lauraceae, or dipterocarps with palms. They also contain dry hill forest and secondary 
growth. The hills of central Lao and the Bolovens Plateau are similar, but include dense 
fagaceous forest and forest of broadleaf trees with Podocarpus, as well as dipterocarp forest 
and degraded areas. Above 2000m, the mountains are characterised by coniferous forest. The 
major causes of deforestation in Lao include shifting cultivation, poorly controlled logging 
and bomb damage (1960s and 1970s). The retention of forest cover on upland areas in order 
to protect watersheds and regulate water flow is considered to be fundamental to the 
maintenance of agricultural productivity in the lowlands (Gressitt, 1970; Anon, 1988; Collins 
etal. (Eds.) 1991; Davis et al. (Eds.) 1995). 



References 

Anon. 1988. Shifting cultivation in Laos: technical report prepared at the request of LAO 

PDRandSIDA (FOD/VF/JS/chr/dg 1088s). lUCN, Switzerland. 
Collins, N.M., Sayer, J. A. and Whitmore, T.C. (Eds.). 1991. The conservation atlas of 

tropical forests: Asia and the Pacific. lUCN, Gland & WCMC, Cambridge. Simon & 

Schuster, New York, pp.335. 
Davis, S.D., Heywood, V.H. and Hamilton, A.C. (Eds.). 1995. Centres of plant diversity: 

a guide and strategy for their conservation. Vol.2 Asia. Australasia and the Pacific. 

WWF and lUCN. pp.578. 
Gressitt, J.L. 1970. Biogeography of Laos. Pacific Insects Monograph 24:573-626. 



223 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



MALAYSIA 



Montane forest occurs extensively on all the main mountains. Upper montane forest is mostly 
found above 1500m, However, on isolated peaks, in particular those close to the coast, upper 
montane forest abuts directly on to hill forest even below 800m. Endemism is very high. In 
addition, many endemics are confined to a single peak or adjacent peaks. The montane flora 
of Peninsular Malaysia is estimated to include at least 3000 vascular plant species, of which 
about 2125 species are confined to montane forest. Montane forests protect animals that are 
largely restricted to this vegetation type, for example, four species of mammals (Hapalomys 
longicaudatus, Petaurista elegans, Chimarrogale himalayica and Talpa micrura) and 75 
species of birds in Peninsular Malaysia. The montane flora of Peninsular Malaysia is severely 
threatened by planned hill resort development, including bungalows, hotels, roads, golf 
courses, etc. Other substantial threats throughout Malaysia include logging, agricultural 
encroachment, tourist pressure on peaks and plant collecting (Whitmore, 1975; Davison. 
1991; Ratnam, Nor Azman Hussein & Lim, 1991; Davis et al. (Eds.), 1995; Wyatt-Smith 
1996). 



References 

Collins, N.M., Sayer, J. A. and Whitmore, T.C. (Eds.). 1991. The conservation atlas of 

tropical forests: Asia and the Pacific. lUCN, Gland & WCMC, Cambridge. Simon & 

Schuster, New York, pp.335. 
Davison, G.W.H. 1991. Birds. In: The State of Nature Conservation in Malaysia 

(R. Kiew, ed.), Malaysian Nature Society, pp. 135-142. 
Davies, A.G. and Payne, J.B. 1982. A Faunal Survey ofSabah. World Wildlife Fund 

Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 
Davis, S.D., Heywood, V.H. and Hamilton, A.C. (Eds.). 1995. Centres of plant diversity: 

a guide and strategy for their conservation. Vol.2 Asia, Australasia and the Pacific 

WWF and lUCN. pp.578. 
Kitayama, K. 1993. Biophysical conditions of the montane cloud forests of Mount Kinabalu, 

Sabah, Malaysia. In: Tropical montane cloud forests: proceedings of an international 

symposium (L.S. Hamilton. J.O. Juvik & F.N. Scatena, eds.). East-West Center 

Hawai'i. pp. 115-125. 
Laidlaw, R.K. 1994. The Virgin Jungle Reserves of Peninsular Malaysia: the ecology and 

dynamics of small protected areas in managed forest. Unpubl. doctoral dissertation. 

University of Cambridge. 
Medway, Lord. 1969. The wild mammals of Malaya. Oxford University Press, Kuala 

Lumpur. 



224 



South East Asia 



Medway, Lord. 1972. The Gunong Benom expedition 1967. 6. The distribution and 

altimdinal zonation of birds and mammals on Gunong Benom. Bull. Br. Mas. Nat. 

//wr. D. 23:105-154. 
Payne. J.. Francis, CM. and Phillipps, K. 1985. Afield guide to the mammals of Borneo. 

WWF Malaysia/The Sabah Society, Kuala Lumpur. 
Ratnam, L., Nor Azman Hussein and Lim, B.L. 1991. Small mammals in Peninsular 

Malaysia. In: The State of Nature Conservation in Malaysia (R. Kiew, ed.), pp. 150- 

172. Malayan Nature Society. 
Richards, P.W. 1996. Jlie tropical rainforest: an ecological study. 2nd ed. Cambridge 

University Press. 
Whitmore, T.C. 1975. Tropical rainforests of the Far East. Clarendon Press, Oxford. 
Wyatt-Smith, J. 1996. Manual of Malaysan silviculture for inland forest. 2 Vols. 2nd 

Edition. Malay. For.Rec.23. 



225 



MALAYSIA: CLCXJO FOREST SUMMARY 






Date: 27/06/97 
Protected* 


Cloud Forest Region 


Cloud Forest Site 




Yes/No7 


Bintang Range 


Ginung Tahan 


4°34'N/102*17'E 


Yes 


Central Highlands 


Gunung Lotong 


4°58'N/117°31'E 


Yes 




Gunung Si lam 


CW'Sa-N/IIB-IO'E 


No 




Segama Highlands 


4°49'N/117°4S'E 


Yes 




Tawau Highlands 


4°24'N/117°54'E 


Yes 


Central Highlands - Kuamut 


Gunung Lotong 


4°58'N/117"'31'E 


Yes 


Central Highlands - Tawau Highlands 


Tauau Highlands 


4''24'N/117°54"E 


Yes 


Gunung Belunut 


Gunung Belunut 


2°02'M/103°31'E 


No 


Gunung Benom 


Gunung Benom 


3''50'N/1G2°05'E 


Yes 


Gunung Jerai 


Kedah Peak 


5°47'N/100°26'E 


Yes 


Gunung Kajang 


Gunung Kajang 


2°46'N/104''10'E 


Yes 


Gunung Ledang 


Mount Ophir 


2°22'N/102''36'E 


Yes 


Main Range/T i t i uangsa Range 


Bukit Larut/Maxwell Hill 


4°54'N/100°47'E 


Yes 




Cameron Highlands 


4°30'N/101°30'E 


Yes 




Gunung Bunga Buah 


03'23'N/101»53'E 


No 




Gunung Korbu 


4"50'N/101*18'E 


No 




Gunung Telapak Burok 


2°50'N/102°04'E 


Yes 




Gunung Yong Blar 


/ 


No 




Gunung Yong Yap 


/ 


No 


Mount, of Sarauak-Pegunungan Kapuas 


Gunung Lawit 


01''26'N/112''58'E 


Yes 




Tohenbatu 


/ 


Yes 


Mountains of Sarawak 


Bukit Batu Bora 


02°35'N/114''52'E 


Yes 




Bukit Batu Mabui 


02°54'N/114''34'E 


Yes 




Bukit Kalulong 


/ 


No 




Bukit Kenawang 


02°55'N/114'39'E 


Yes 




Bukit Lanjak 


OI'ZS'N/I^-OO'E 


Yes 




Dulit Range 


/ 


Yes 




Gunung Api 


/ 


Yes 




Gunung Benarat 


04»10'N/114''53'E 


Yes 




Gumng Lawit 


0r26'N/112°58'E 


Yes 




Gunung Mulu 


4°05'N/114°55'E 


Yes 




Gunung Santubong 


0r44'N/110°20'E 


No 




Hose Mountains 


/ 


Yes 




Linau Balui Plateau 


/ 


Yes 




Penambo Range 


/ 


Yes 




Tamabo Range 


/ 


Yes 




Tohenbatu 


/ 


Yes 


Mountains of Sarawak - Dulit Range 


Dulit Range 


/ 


Yes 


Mountains of Sarawak - Gunung 


Gunung Benarat 


(K'lO'N/IU-SS'E 


Yes 


Mountains of Sarawak - Hose 


Hose Mountains 


/ 


Yes 


Mountains of Sarawak - Linau Balui 


Linau Balui Plateau 


/ 


Yes 


Mountains of Sarawak - Pegunungan 


Bukit Batu Bora 


02°35'N/114°52'E 


Yes 


Mountains of Sarawak - Penambo 


Penambo Range 


/ 


Yes 


Mountains of Sarawak - Tamabo Range 


Tamabo Range 


/ 


Yes 


Mountains of Sarawak - Usun Apau 


Bukit Batu Mabun 


02°54'N/114°34'E 


Yes 




Bukit Kenawang 


02''55'N/114°39'E 


Yes 


Western Hill Ranges 


Crocker Range 


5°33'N/116°08'E 


Yes 




Gunung Trus Madi 


05''34'N/116''29"E 


Yes 




Maligan Range 


/ 


Yes 




Mount Kinabalu 


6°00'N/116°30'E 


Yes 




Witti Range 


/ 


Yes 


Uestern Hill Ranges - Maligan Range 


Maligan Range 


/ 


Yes 


Western Hill Ranges - Trus Madi 


Gunung Trus Hadi 


05°34'N/116''29'E 


Yes 


Western Hill Ranges - Witti Range 


Witti Range 


/ 


Yes 


Total No. of 


Total No. of 


Total No. of CF Sites with 


CF Regions= 24 


CF Sites= 54 


an element of protection = 46 



* 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Malaysia 



Bintang Range 

As with the Main Range, peaks in the Bintang Range mostly reach 1400m. Gunung Tahan is 
the highest mountain in both the range and in the Peninsula at 2190m. There are thought to be 
about 2000 vascular plant species on the mountain. Montane ericaceous forest starts at about 
1200m where the most abundant species are Leptospermum flavescens, Darydium beccarii. 
Rhododendron spp., Vaccinium spp. and Nepenthes spp. The red-cheeked ground squirrel 
Dremomys rufigenis, a squirrel of mountain forest, is common on Gunung Tahan. Also there 
is a subspecies of the slender squirrel Sundasciurus tenuis tahan described from Gunung 
Tahan, which is found above approximately 1000m. Gunung Tahan is protected within 
Taman Negara, a National Park (Medway, 1969; Whitmore, 1975; Davis et al. (Eds.), 1996; 
WCMC unpubl. data). 



Central Highlands 

The Central Highlands include the Labuk, Kuamut, Segama and Tawau Highlands, which 
reach a height of about 1000m, with higher peaks such as Gunung Lotong (1900m and part of 
the Gunung Lotong Conservation Area in the Kuamut Highlands). Gunung Silam. known for 
its ultramafic flora, is a coastal mountain in Sabah where the transition to mossy upper 
montane forest takes place at c. 610-770m (due to the Massenerhebung effect). In the Tawau 
Highlands mossy forest occurs at about 1000m and is included in the Bukit Tawau Park. 
Mossy forest is also found in the Segama Highlands, part of which is included in the Danum 
Conservation Area. Forest in the Central Highlands is largely threatened by logging, and also 
mining (Collins et al. (Eds.), 1991; Davis et al. (Eds.), 1996; Richards, 1996; WCMC 
unpubl. data). 



Central Highlands - Kuamut Highlands 

Presence of cloud forest, indicated but not confirmed. (WCMC 1997). 

Central Highlands - Tawau Highlands 

Presence of cloud forest, indicated but not confirmed. (WCMC 1997). 



228 



South East Asia 



Gunung Belumut 

The summit of Gunung, which is an isolated peak of 1009m in the State of Johore. lies above 
the line of prevalent cloud with upper montane forest abutting onto lowland forest at about 
810-840m. The forest has about 1500 vascular plant species. It may be under pressure from 
commercial timber extraction (Whitmore, 1975; Davis et al. (Eds.) 1996; Richards. 1996). 



Gunung Benom 

Gunung Benom is an isolated mountain (2075m) in the State of Pahang. It is protected by the 
Krau Wildlife Reserve. Pressures on the Reserve include logging and agriculairal 
encroachment. Upper montane forest occurs from about 1500m. There are 48 species of birds 
found above 1200m, 39 species at 1500m and 31 species at 1800m (Medway; Whitmore, 
1975; WCMC unpubl. data). 



Gunung Jerai 

Gunung Jerai is an isolated coastal mountain of 1200m in the State of Kedah, whose peak is 
often covered in cloud. The forest is valued as a water catchment area. The mountain is 
thought to have about 1000 vascular plant species. Although some of the forest on the 
mountain is protected by four Virgin Jungle Reserves, the area is threatened by visitor 
pressure associated with tourism. There is also a microwave station on the summit 
(Whitmore, 1975; Laidlaw, 1994; Davis et al. (Eds.), 1996). 



Gunung Kajang 

Gunung Kajang is on Pulau Tioman and on the crest of Gunung Kajang (1038m) above 
1000m, there is mossy, upper montane forest. There are thought to be about 1000 vascular 
plant species on this mountain. Though the whole of Pulau Tioman is a Wildlife Reserve, 
plant collecting is a threat (Davis et al. (Eds.), 1996). 



Gunung Ledang 

An isolated mountain in the State of Johore, Gunung Ledang (1243m) is an important water 
catchment area and is thought to have about 1000 vascular plant species. Though the peak is 
partly protected by two Virgin Jungle Reserve, all summit vegetation has been destroyed by 
campers. There is also some dismrbance from a microwave station and the area is threatened 
by a planned large-scale hill resort (Laidlaw, 1994; Davis et al. (Eds.), 1996). 



229 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Main Range/Titiwangsa Range 

The majority of mountain peaks in Peninsular Malaysia lie on the Main Range. Peaks in the 
Main Range mostly reach 1400m. Montane sites include the Cameron Highlands (i.e. Gunung 
Brinchang. Gunung Jasar and Gunung Beremban), Bukit Larut/Maxwell Hill (1389m). 
Gunung Telapak Burok (1193m), Gunung Korbu (2179m), Gunung Yong Yap (2164m), 
Gunung Yong Blar (2178m) and Gunung Bunga Buah. Three of these sites, Cameron 
Highlands, Gunung Telepak Burok (in Berembun Forest Reserve) and Bukit Larut contain 
small protected areas of forest (Virgin Jungle Reserve). There is also a Wildlife Santuary in 
the Cameron Highlands. A major threat to the montane forests of the Main 
Range is a mountain road planned to link hill resorts. The purpose of this road is to open up 
land for logging, residential housing and agriculture. The result is likely to be widespread 
damage to the upper montane forests, as well as landslips, soil erosion and siltation 
downstream (Whitmore, 1975; Collins et aL (Eds.), 1991; Laidlaw, 1994; Davis et al. 
(Eds.), 1995; WCMC unpubl. data). 



Mount, of Sarawak-Pegunungan Kapuas Hulu 

Presence of cloud forest, indicated but not confirmed. (WCMC 1997). 

Mountains of Sarawak 

Including the upland areas of Gunung Mulu (2376m), Gunung Benarat (1515m) and Gunung 
Api (1750m), all part of the Gunung Mulu National Park; Tamabo Range; Penambo Range; 
Bukit Kalulong (1641m); Dulit Range and Gunung Dulit (1369m); Usun Apau Plateau and 
Bukit Batu Mabun (1270m) and Bukit Kenawang (1280m); Pegunungan Iban and Bukit Batu 
Bora (1465m); Linau Balui Plateau; Hose Mountains (highest peak 2012m); Pegunungan 
Kapuas Hulu and Tohenbam (1527m) and Gunung Lawit (1767m); Boven Kapuas Mountains; 
Bukit Lanjak (1281m and included in the Lanjak-Entimau Wildlife Sanchiary); and Gunung 
Sanmbong (797m). Due to the Massenerhebung effect the limits of the altiUidinal zones are 
much higher on inland mountains than on mountains near to the coast. For example, Gunung 
Sanmbong, an isolated mountain on the coast (797m) contains upper montane forest, whereas 
the inland Gunung Mulu and Gunung Dulit are covered with low cloud above an altimde of 
about 1000m for most of the year, with upper montane forest found above 1600m on Gunung 
Mulu. In the short facias of the Gunung Mulu upper montane forest, the most abundant tree 
species are Lithocarpus hatusimae, Dacrydium and Phyllocladus and higher up, Calophyllum 
garcinioides , Eugenia kinabaluensis, Dacrydium and Phyllocladus. Smaller woody plants 
include many Ericaceae some of which are epiphytic. Scrambling Nepenthes (including small 
tree ferns as well as terrestrial orchids and other ground herbs. Above 1000m on Gunung Api 
a limestone variant of upper montane moss forest may be found. The composition of this 



230 



South Easi Asia 



community is similar to tliat of the upper montane forest on Gunung Mulu. Logging is the 
predominant pressure on these forests (Whitmore, 1975; Collins et al. (Eds.). 1991; Davis et 
al. (Eds.), 1996; Richards, 1996; WCMC unpubl. data). 



Mountains of Sarawak - Gunung Benarat 

Presence of cloud forest, indicated but not confirmed. (WCMC 1997). 

Mountains of Sarawak - Hose Mountains 

Presence of cloud forest, indicated but not confirmed. (WCMC 1997). 

Mountains of Sarawak - Linau Balui Plateau 

Presence of cloud forest, indicated but not confirmed. (WCMC 1997). 

Mountains of Sarawak - Pegunungan Iban 

Presence of cloud forest, indicated but not confirmed. (WCMC 1997). 

Mountains of Sarawak - Penambo Range 

Presence of cloud forest, indicated but not confirmed. (WCMC 1997). 

Mountains of Sarawak - Tamabo Range 

Presence of cloud forest, indicated but not confirmed. (WCMC 1997). 

Mountains of Sarawak - Usun Apau Plateau 

Presence of cloud forest, indicated but not confirmed. (WCMC 1997). 



231 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD EORESTS 



Western Hill Ranges 

The Western Hill Ranges are mainly sedimentary formations up to about 1500m. with higher 
peaks such as Gunung Trus Madi (2649m) and Mount Kinabalu (the highest mountain in 
Malesia outside New Guinea at 4101m). The Western Hill Ranges includes the Crocker. 
Witti, Maligan and Trus Madi Ranges. The Crocker Range contains a Virgin Jungle Reserve 
and a National Park. Mount Kinabalu is perhaps the most famous site with upper montane 
forest in Sabah. It is also considered to be by far the most important botanical site in Borneo 
and is protected within the Kinabalu Park. Montane forest is the dominant vegetation type 
comprising 37% of the Park. With greater altimdes the montane habitats increasingly 
comprise species of Fagaceae, Ericaceae, Myrtaceae, Lauraceae, Magnoliaceae and Guttiferae 
along with conifers such as Agathis. Dacrycarpus, Podocarpus, Phyllocladus and Dactydiuni. 
Members of the Nepenthaceae are also present in these habitats including the Kinabalu 
endemic Nepenthes raja. Montane mammal species include the Kinabalu squirrel Callosciurus 
baluensis and the summit rat Rattus baluensis. The mountain has long been regarded as a 
sacred mountain by the native Dusun people and given the wealth of species, the area is also 
of considerable scientific importance. In addition, it is valued for tourism (in 1991 the Park 
received 233,965 visitors) and the forest also acts as a very important catchment area. 
Pressures on the montane habitats include visitor pressure and illegal plant collecting (Davies 
& Payne, 1982; Kitayama, 1993; Payne et al., 1985; Collins et al. (Eds.), 1991; Davies et aL 
(Eds.), 1996; Richards, 1996; WCMC unpubl. data). 



Western Hill Ranges - Maligan Range 

Presence of cloud forest, indicated but not confirmed. (WCMC 1997). 

Western Hill Ranges - Trus Madi Range 

Presence of cloud forest, indicated but not confirmed. (WCMC 1997). 

Western Hill Ranges - Witti Range 

Presence of cloud forest, indicated but not confirmed. (WCMC 1997). 



232 



South East Asia 



MYANMAR 



The forests of Myanmar are under considerable pressure as a result of forest degradation, 
over hunting and deforestation. In addition, they are poorly documented largely due to 
political unrest in the country. The Myanmar Forestry Department, however, aims to include 
5% of the total land area in the Myanmar protected area network. Upland areas in Myanmar 
include the Chin Hills in west-central Myanmar and the Shan Plateau in east-central Myanmar 
(The'mLmnetal. 1990; CoWms et al. (Eds.), 1991; Davis et al. (Eds.), 1995). 



References 

Collins, N.M., Sayer, J. A. and Whitmore, T.C. (Eds.). 1991. The conservation atlas of 

tropical forests: Asia and the Pacific. lUCN, Gland & WCMC, Cambridge. Simon & 

Schuster, New York, pp.335. 
Davis, S.D., Heywood, V.H. and Hamilton, A.C. (Eds.). 1995. Centres of plant diversity: 

a guide and strategy for tneir conservation. Vol.2 Asia, Australasia and the Pacific. 

WWF and lUCN. pp.578. 
FAO. 1983. Nature conservation and National Parks, Burma: interim report (FO: 

DP/BUR/80/006). FAO, Rangoon. 
Forest Department Myanmar. 1991. Forest Resources of Myanmar: conservation and 

inanagement. Forest Department Myanmar. 
Thein Lwin, Uga and Saw Tun Khaing. 1990. Wildlife conservation in Myanmar. Ministry 

of Agriculture and Forests, Myanmar. 



233 



MYANMAR 








Chin Hills 






^th ■■■' \-- -<■•,■. ^^r 



*5 














( 



<y 





/ 





J 



^^^ 



MYANHAR: CLOUD FOREST SUMMARY °"**= 27/06/97 

Protected* 
Cloud Forest Region Cloud Forest Site Yes/No7 



Chin Hills Natma Taung/Mount Victoria 21°12'M/ 93°5S'E Yes 



Total Wo. of Total No. of Total No. of CF Sites with 

CF ReBions= 1 CF Sites= 1 an element of protection » 1 

• 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Myamnar 



Chin Hills 

The Chin Hills are about 400km long and contain several peaks over 2500m. The highest 
peak in both the Chin Hills and in southern and central Myanmar is Natma Taung (Mount 
Victoria) at 3053m. Subtropical evergreen forest occurs at 1000-2130m and is below the mist- 
line, whereas temperate semi-evergreen forest occurs. at 1830-3053m and is above the mist- 
line. This area is thought to contain a number of endemics, possibly including the white- 
browed nuthatch Sina victoria, which is only known from Natma Taung. Natma Taung has 
been proposed as a National Park. It is valued by the local people who collect beewax, 
firewood, fruit and orchids from the forest. Threats to the area include habitat loss and 
hunting (FAO, 1983; Forest Department Myanmar, 1991; Collins er al. (Eds.), 1991; Davies 
etal. (Eds.), 1995; WCMC unpubl. data). 



236 



South East Asia 



PAPUA NEW GUINEA 



Papua New Guinea politically comprises not only the eastern half of New Guinea Island, but 
also a considerable number of islands, including New Britain, New Ireland, Bougainville 
Island, Goodenough Island and Fergusson Island. All of which are thought to contain at least 
some areas of cloud forest. The majority of cloud forests, however, are found on the New 
Guinea Cordillera, which is likely to be rich in endemics. Partly due to the complex system of 
land tenure, only two cloud forest sites (Mount Giluwe and Mount Wilhelm) are included in 
protected areas. Pressures on these forests include natural environmental factors (cyclones and 
landslides), agriculture and logging. The forests are valued for timber, food, medicines, 
textiles, fuel and ornaments (Davis et al. (Eds.), 1995; WCMC unpubl. data). 



References 

Brass, L.J. 1956. Results of the Archbold expeditions. No. 75. Summary of the fourth 

Archbold expedition to New Guinea (1953). Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 111:80-152. 
Brass, L.S. 1959. Results of the Archbold expeditions. No. 79. Summary of the fifth 

Archbold expedition to New Guinea (1956-57). Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 118:1-70. 
Brass, L.S. 1964. Results of the Archbold expeditions. No. 86. Summary of the sixth 

Archbold expedition to New Guinea (1959). Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 127:145-215. 
Davis, S.D., Heywood, V.H. and Hamilton, A.C. (Eds.). 1995. Centres of plant diversity: 

a guide and strategy for their conservation. Vol.2 Asia, Australasia and the Pacific. 

WWFandlUCN. pp.578. 
Paijchmans, K. 1975. Explanatory notes to the vegetation rnap of New Guinea. Land 

Research Series No. 35. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research 

Organisation. Australia. 
Richards, P.W. 1996. The tropical rainforest: an ecological study. 2nd ed. Cambridge 

University Press. 
Whitmore, T.C. 1975. Tropical rainforests of the Far East. Clarendon Press, Oxford. 



237 



PAPUA NEW GUINEA: CLOUD FOREST SUMMARY 



Date: 27/06/97 



Cloud Forest Region 



Cloud Forest Site 



Protected* 
Yes/No7 



Neu Britain Island 
New Guinea Cordillera 



New Ireland Island 



New Britain 
Crater Mount 
Doma Peaks 
Mount Aiyang 
Mount Albert Edward 
Mount Amungwiwa 
Mount Bangeta 
Mount Dayman 
Mount Giluwe 
Mount Haagen 
Mount Herbert 
Mount lalibu 
Mount Kerewa 
Mount Kubor 
Mount Lawson 
Mount Michael 
Mount Obree 
Mount Otto 
Mount Piora 
Mount Saint Mary 
Mount Sinpson 
Mount Strong 
Mount Suckling 
Mount Victoria 
Mouit Uilhelm 
Mount Yelia 
The Sugarloaf 
New Ireland 



06°37'S/U5°05 
05°54'S/143°43 

/ 
08»53'S/U7«20 
07°27'S/166°35 
06»17'S/U7°05 
09"'50'S/U9''15 
06°06'S/U3°54 
05°45'S/144°05 
05''54'S/144''59 
06°16'S/1U''02 
06»00'S/143''45 
06°10'S/144''43 
07»43'S/146°3S 
06°25'S/145°20 
09°30'S/148°04 
05°59'S/145°28 
06°45'S/146°00 
08°09'S/146°59 
10°05'S/149°36 
07°58'S/147°57 
09°49'S/148°53 
08°52'S/147»32 
05°46'S/144°59 
07*01 ■S/145°52 
05'47'S/143°45 

/ 



No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

Yes 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

Yes 

No 

No 

No 



Total No. of 
CF Regions^ 3 



Total No. of 
CF Sites- 28 



Total No. of CF Sites with 
an element of protection > 2 



'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Papua New Guinea 



New Britain Island 

The vegetation of this island is little known and may contain cloud forest (Davis e! al. (Eds.). 
1995)." 



New Guinea Cordillera 

This huge Codillera runs the length of New Guinea, i.e. Papua New Guinea and Irian Jaya 
(see Indonesia) and has several peaks over 4000m. Other than Mount Kinabalu (4101m - see 
Malaysia), the mountains of New Guinea are the only mountains in the region that extend 
above the climatic tree line. The forest zones of Malesia attain their greatest height, variation 
with elevation and are the most extended on this mountain chain and it is thought that due to 
the huge mass of the Cordillera, it is the only mountain range in the tropical Far East likely to 
show a substantial Massenerhebung heating effect. The affinities of the New Guinea montane 
flora are mainly Malesian and Australian. There is, however, a high degree of endemism at 
specific level. Upper montane forest is found at about 3000m upwards and may be divided 
into two distinct floristic zones; cloud forest at 3000-3300/3350m and lower subalpine forest 
at 3300/3350-350/3600m. On the highest mountains, a third zone has been distinguished; 
upper subalpine forest. The upper montane flora is much poorer than that of the lower 
montane. Elaeocarpaceae and ground ferns are less abundant and Lauraceae distinctly rare, 
whereas ground-dwelling Ericaceae are fairly common. The canopy is generally less than 
20m high. The abundance and luxuriance of bryophytes varies, but typically trees are covered 
with hepatics, mosses and other epiphytes. Cloud forest sites are thought to occur on the 
following peaks: Mount Aiyang (3993m), Doma Peaks (3962m), Mount Kerewa (3414m), 
The Sugarloaf (3962m), Mount Giluwe (4088m), Mount lalibu (3353m) Mount Haagen 
(4000m), Mount Wilhelm (4508m - the highest point in Papua New Guinea), Mount Herbert 
(4267m), Mount Kubor (4359m), Mount Otto (3539m), Mount Michael (3810m), Crater 
Mount (3231m), Mount Piora (3719m), Mount Yelia (3810m), Mount Bangeta (4107m), 
Mount Amungwiwa (3277m), Mount Lawson (3216m), Mount Strong (3766m), Mount Saint 
Mary (3654m), Mount Albert Edward (3993m), Mount Victoria (4073m), Mount Obree 
(3129m), Mount Suckling (3676m), Mount Dayman and Mount Simpson (3039m) (Brass, 
1956, 1959, 1964; Paijmans, 1975; Whitmore, 1975; FAO, 1989; Davis et al. (Eds.), 1995; 
Richards, 1996; WCMC unpubl. data). 



New Ireland Island 

This island may contain cloud forest (Davis et aL (Eds.), 1995). 



240 



South East Asia 



PHILIPPINES 



In the Philippines, tropical montane cloud forests, known locally as mossy forests, occur in 
rugged mountain regions above 900m elevation. They are best developed on mountains above 
1200m. The upper limits vary depending on the locality and height of the mountain. Mossy 
forests cover about 8% of the land area and comprise the majority of remaining non- 
commercial native forest. There are estimated to be about 57 bryophyte, 91 fern, 18 
gymnosperm and 377 angiosperm species in Philippine mossy forests. Typical trees in these 
forests are conifers of the genera Dacrydium, Dacrycarpus and Podocarpus as well as 
broadleaves of the genera Lithocarpus, Symplocos, Engelhartia, Syzygium and Myrica. 
Species of Ericaceae {Rhododendron, Vaccinium) and Melastomataceae {Astonia, Medinilla, 
Melastoma) are common as well as the tree fern genus Cyathea. In addition, there are an 
abundance of liverworts and mosses (66 species of mosses are endemic to the Philippines). 
These mossy forests are generally two-tiered with trees reaching an average height of 10m 
and having a diameter of less than 40cm. They are said to have little commercial value but are 
considered to have an important role to play in ensuring watershed stabilization (Tan, 1984; 
Cox. 1988; Fernando, 1988; Collins et al. (Eds.), 1991; Penafiel, 1993; Davis et al. (Eds.), 
1995). 



References 

Anon. 1988. Development of an integrated protected areas system (WAS) for the Philippines. 

WWF-USA, DENR and Haribon Foundation unpubl. report. 
Anderson, G., Asane, D., Brooks, T., Dutson, G., Evans, T., Timmins, R. and Toledo, A. 

1991. Preliminary report of the Cambridge Philippines rainforest project 1991. 

Unpubl. 
Collins, N.M., Sayer, J. A. and Whitmore, T.C. (Eds.). 1991. The conservation atlas of 

tropical forests: Asia and the Pacific. lUCN, Gland & WCMC, Cambridge. Simon & 

Schuster, New York, pp.335. 
Cox, R. 1988. The conservation status of biological resouces in the Philippines: a report by 

the lUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre. Draft prepared for IIED. 
Davis, S.D., Heywood, V.H. and Hamilton, A.C. (Eds.). 1995. Centres of plant diversity: 

a guide and strategy for their conservation. Vol.2 Asia, Australasia and the Pacific. 

WWF and lUCN. pp.578. 
Enables, B.U. 1978. Notes on Makiling Botanic Gardens and the Makiling Forest. Unpubl. 
Fernando, E.S. 1988. Diversity of the flora in Philippines forest ecosystems. In: Proceedings 

of the technical workshop on Philippine biological diversity. Haribon Foundation and 

the International Institute for Environment and Development. 



241 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Goodman, S.M. and Gonzales, P.C. 1990. The birds of Mt. Isarog National Park. Southern 

Luzon, Philippines, with particular reference to altitudinal distribution. Fieldiana: 

Zoology New Series, No. 60. Field Museum of Natural History. 
Penafiel, S.R. 1993. The biological and hydrological values of the mossy forests in the 

Central Cordillera Mountains, Philippines. In: Tropical Montane Cloud Forests: 

Proceedings of an International Symposium (eds. L.S. Hamilton, J.O. Juvik and F.N. 

Scatena). pp. 17 1-175. East-West Center. 
Richards, P.W. 1996. The tropical rainforest: an ecological study. 2nd ed. Cambridge 

University Press. 
Whitmore, T.C. 1975. Tropical rainforests of the Far East. Clarendon Press, Oxford. 
Tan, B.C. 1982. Checklist of mosses of Mt Makiling (Luzon Island, Philippines). Quart. 

Journ. Taiwan Museum 35:135-148. 
Tan, B.C. 1984. A reconsideration of the affinity of the Philippine moss flora. J.Hattori 

Bot.Lab. 55:13-22. 
Tan, B.C. 1996. Biogeography of Palawan Mosses. Australian Systematic Botany 9:193-203. 



242 



^p 



to 



PHILIPPINES 



250 km 



d 



9 




ierra Madre/ 
Mingan Mountains 



^^ii^ Banahaw 
»Ki^^ Cristobal 



Mount Mai 







ntiisarog 
unt Mayon 
Mount Bulusan 







£, 



o^-- 



cPV. 




PHILIPPINES: CLOUD FOREST SUMMARY 



Date: 27/06/97 



Cloud Forest Region 



Cloud Forest Site 



Protected* 
Yes/No? 



Cordillera Central 



Cordilleras Range 
Leyte Mountains 

Mindanao Mountains 



Hindoro Mountains 



Mount Bulusan 

Mount Isarog 

Mount Makiling 

Mount Mayon 

Mounts Banahaw and San Cristobal 

Negros Mountains 

Palawan Mountains 



Sibuyan Mountains 

Sierra Madre/Mingan Mountains 



Mount Data 

Mount Pulog 

Mount Sapocoy 

Mount Tabayoo 

Sicapoo 

Mount Baloy 

Mount Lobi 

Mount Tinagan 

Mount Apo 

Moint Dapiak 

Mount Ki tang I ad 

Mount Malindang 

Mount Ragang 

Mount Baco 

Mount Ha I con 

Mount Iglit/Mangibok 

Mount Malasimbo 

Mount Bulusan 

Mount Isarog 

Mount Maki ling 

Mount Mayon 

Mounts Banahaw and San Cristobal 

Mount Canlaon 

Cleopatra Needle 

Mount Beaufort 

Mount Mantalingajan 

The Teeth 

Victoria Peak 

Mount Guiting-Guiting 

Mount Cresta 

Mount Divilacan 

Mount Patanan 



U-IO'N/IEO'SS'E 

16°36'N/120°53'E 

17°29'M/121"00'E 

16''41'N/120°54'E 

18°02'N/120°57'E 

11°23'N/122°09'E 

ir00'N/124°48'E 

ir07'N/124°41'E 

6°59'N/125°16'E 

8°15'N/123°28'E 

08°07'N/124°55'E 

8"'12'N/123°40'E 

7°41'N/124''30'E 

12°50'N/121°10'E 

13°17'H/121°09'E 

12°35'N/121°15'E 

/ 
12°48'N/124°03'E 
13°40'N/123°23'E 
14°08'N/121''12'E 
13''16'N/123''42'E 
14°26'N/121°30'E 
10»26'N/123''10'E 
10"'10'N/119°02'E 

/ 

8°51'N/117*43'E 

9°21'N/118''16'E 

12°23'N/118°18'E 

12°24'N/122''33'E 

/ 

/ 

17°01'N/122°16'E 



Yes 

Yes 

No 

No 

No 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

No 

No 

No 

No 



Total No. of 
CF Regions: 14 



Total No. of 
CF Sites: 32 



Total No. of CF Sites with 
an element of protection ' 19 



* 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria 



Sourli East Asia 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Philippines 



Cordillera Central 

The Cordillera Central is located in the north-west of the island of Luzon. The dominant tree 
species in the canopy of the mossy forests of this mountain range are Lithocarpus jordanae . 
L. sderiana. L. coopertus, Vicinium spp., Melastotna topingii, Eurya acuminata and some 
gymnosperms represented by Taxux sumatrana, Phyllodadus stugii and Darycarpus cumingii. 
The subcanopy comprises Clethrea canescens, Cyathea spp., Smilax spp., Decaspermum 
spp., Medenilla spp., Melastoma topingii and Duplocosia spp. 5821 ha of mossy forest are 
contained within the Mount Pulog National Park, including Mount Pulog (2929m), the 
highest mountain in Luzon. The flora of this area has affinities with the montane floras of 
Sulawesi, New Guinea and Sabah, in particular Mount Kinabalu. Endemism is, however, 
quite high with approximately 23 % of the total number of genera represented in the flora 
being endemic to Mount Pulog and its vicinities. The fauna includes the near-endemic bushy- 
tailed cloud rat Crateromys schadenbergi, nine species of bird endemic to Mount Pulog and 
eight species of bird, which are endangered. A second protected mossy forest site in this 
mountain range is Mount Data (-Bontoc) in the Mount Data National Park. Average annual 
rainfall in this site over a three-year period was recorded as 3770mm at an elevation of 
2353m. The endemic forest rat Batomys granti is known only from Mount Data. Other peaks 
in this mountain range include Sicapoo (2234m), Mount Sapocoy (2456m) and Mount 
Tabayoo (2842m). The greatest threat to mossy forests in the Central Cordillera is the 
clearing of land in order to grow temperate and semi-temperate vegetable crops. Other threats 
include hunting and the extraction of certain tree species for house construction (Cox, 1988; 
Penafiel, 1993). 



Cordilleras Range 

The Cordilleras Range is located in the Island of Panay (one of the Visayas Islands). Mount 
Baloy (2049m), which is rich in gymnosperm and tree fern species, is located in western 
Panoy and contains montane forest. The largest and possibly only viable population of the 
endemic Philippine spotted deer Cetyus alfredi, which is in imminent danger of extinction, is 
found in the Mount Maja-as/Mount Baloy area. The endemic Visayan wild pig Sus barbatus 
cebifrons is also seriously threatened by habitat destruction and hunting. The area is 
threatened by illegal logging and shifting cultivation, but has no legal protection (Cox, 1988; 
Davis era/. (Eds.), 1995). 



245 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Leyte Mountains 

The Leyte mountains are located on the Island of Leyte (one of the Visayas Islands) and 
contain mossy forest. This forest type is included in the Leyte Mountain National Park on the 
higher mountain ridges, for example. Mount Tinagan (1125m) and Mount Lobi (1310m). 
Deforestation threatens these forests (WCMC unpubl. data). 



Mindanao Mountains 

Mount Apo (2954m) is the highest peak in the Philippines. On this mountain, montane forest 
occurs above about 2000m. It includes species of Lithocarpus, Cinnamomum. Melastoma. 
Caryota, Calamus, Ficus, Agathis and many Lauraceae. Lichens, bryophytes, begonias, 
orchids, aroids, Selaginella and Nephrolepis ferns abound. Between 2400-2700m the 
vegetation is more open and stunted and is described as elfm. Upper montane endemics are 
Cypholopus microphyllus and Nepenthes copelandii. The fauna of Mount Apo includes 
several threatened animals, such as 24 highland restricted-range birds. Major pressures on the 
area include a geothermal power station, resettlement schemes, shifting cultivation and illegal 
logging. The mountain is included in Mount Apo National Park. Other peaks in Mindanao are 
Mount Kitanglad (2379m) contained by Mount Kitanglad Range National Park, Mount 
Dapiak (2560m), Mount Malindang (2425m) contained by Mount Malindang National Park 
and Mount Ragang (2815m) (Davis et aL (Eds.), 1995). 



Mindoro Mountains 

Some of the highest peaks on the island of Mindoro are Mount Halcon (2585m), Mount 
Malasimbo (1800m), Mount Iglit/Mangibok (1432m) and Mount Baco (2400m). Both Mount 
Iglit and Mount Baco are included in the Mount Iglit-Baco National Park, where management 
constraints include cattle ranching, farming, firewood gathering and settlements. Mossy 
forests are found in this area above 1000m. Mount Malasimbo is included in the Puerto 
Galera Biosphere Reserve (WCMC unpubl. data). 



Mount Bulusan 

The isolated volcano of Mount Bulusan (1560m) is thought to contain mossy forest. It is part 
of Bulusan Volcano National Park (WCMC unpubl. data). 



246 



South East Asia 



Mount Isarog 

This isolated mountain is located in southern Luzon and is included in the Mount Isarog 
National Park. Mossy forest is found at an elevation of 1500m to the summit at 1966m. A 
total of 135 bird species have been recorded on Mount Isarog: 116 residents and 19 migrants. 
The area is severely threatened by deforestation from illegal logging, poaching and squatters 
(Anon, 1988; Goodman & Gonzales, 1990). 



Mount Makiiing 

Mount Makiiing (Maquiling) is an isolated extinct volcano (1140m) situated in south Central 
Luzon. The flora of Mount Makiiing has been studied in detail: The mossy forest zone occurs 
between 900-1 140m and is similar to that on other Malesian mountains. There is a single tree 
storey of 6-lOm high, with a covering of bryophytes, ferns and other epiphytes, up to 30cm 
thick (a total of 21 species of mosses have been reported from the mountain and macrophylls 
are absent. There is a fairly dense ground cover of herbaceous plants, including ferns. 
Climbing plants are plentiful, but not diverse in terms of species. The commonest trees are 
the tree fern Cyathea caudata and Astonia lagunensis. Threats to the area include illegal 
conversion to agriculture, illegal squatting and a geothermal plant. The Mount Makiiing 
Faunal Reserve and the Mount Makiiing Botanic Gardens are situated in this area (Enalbes, 
1978; Tan, 1982; Davis et al. (Eds.). 1995; Richards, 1996). 



Mount Mayon 

This isolated volcano (2421m) in the south of Luzon is thought to contain mossy forest. It is 
part of Mayon Volcano National Park (WCMC unpubl. data). 



Mounts Banahaw and San Cristobal 

These mountains are simated in south Central Luzon to the east of Mount Makiiing. Threats 
to the forests are similar to those pressurising the Mount Makiiing forests. The mountains are 
included in the Mounts Banahaw-San Cristobal National Park (Davis et al. (Eds.), 1995). 



Negros Mountains 

These mountains on the island of Negros (one of the Visayas Islands) contains mossy forest. 
This forest type has legal protection in Mount Canlaon National park. The forest is, however, 
under severe threat from deforestation (Anderson et al., 1991). 



247 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Palawan Mountains 

The island of Palawan has the highest percentage of forest cover in the Philippines 
archipelago. Montane forests occur between 800m and 1500m on some of the highest peaks, 
for example. Mount Mantalingajan (2054m) the highest mountain in Palawan. The Teeth 
(1798m) and Cleopatra Needle (1593), Mount Beaufort and Victoria Peak. Common species 
of upper montane forest are Agathis philippinensis, Dacrydium pectinatum, Podocarpus 
polystachyus. Gnetum latifolium. Cycas wadei. Cinnamomiim rupestre. Nepenthes 
philippinensis and Angiopteris spp. The moss flora of Palawan consists of 192 species in 88 
genera. The most serious threats to the forests are logging and shifting cultivation. The whole 
of the island of Palawan has been declared a Biosphere Reserve (Davis et al. (Eds.), 1995; 
Tan, 1996). 



Sibuyan Mountains 

Sibuyan Island is composed of several volcanic mountain masses, the highest point being 
Mount Guiting-Guiting (2052m). The montane forest on this island includes small to medium- 
sized trees, such as Dacrydium elatum, Vaccinium gitingensis, Agathis spp. and Podocarpus 
spp. Several plant species are known to be endemic to this mountain. Fifty-four species are 
endemic to Sibuyan Island (Cox, 1988; Davis et ai (Eds.), 1995). 



Sierra Madre/Mingan Mountains 

This mountainous area is located along the north east coast of the island of Luzon. It is largely 
bounded on the west by the Cagayan Valley and on the east by the Philippine Sea. Some of 
the highest peaks in the area include Mount Cresta (1672m), Mount Divilacan (1311m) and 
Mount Palanan (1184m). Numerous endemics and rare species are restricted to this area, with 
many species being restricted to particular vegetation types such as the mossy forests. The 
forests are threatened by the expansion of towns, illegal squatters, over-exploitation for forest 
products and by selective logging by local people. Part of the area was included in the 
Palanan Wilderness Area in 1979 (Davies et ai (Eds.), 1995), 



248 



South East Asia 



SRI LANKA 



The upper montane rain forests of Sri Lanka occur above 1500m in the Central Highlands and 
Knuckles Mountains. The original area is thought to have been about 600sq. km., but now 
only fragments survive. Much of the land has been cleared for tea plantations, vegetable 
gardens, terraced rice fields, housing and large plantations of Eucalyptus and Pinus caribbea 
and rubber at lower elevations. At present, however, over 26,682 ha of montane forests are 
legally protected. The upper montane forests are characterised by Lauraceae (Cinnamomun. 
Litsea, Actinodaphne) and Myrtaceae (Syzygium, Eugenia. Rhodomyrtus), followed by 
Clusiaceae {Calophyllum, Garcinia), Theaceae {Gordonia, Ternstroemia) , Elaeocarpaceae and 
Symplocaceae. Gymnosperms and Fagaceae, which are prominent in the mountains of Asia 
and other regions of the world are lacking in South India and Sri Lanka, as, unusually, in Sri 
Lanka the montane species are thought to derive from the rain forest flora of the lowlands. 
The montane forests are known to be rich in endemic herbs. In addition, they are valued for 
their contribution of additional moisture through interception of fog. Unique animal species 
which inhabit swamps in and around the cloud forests include two endemic and monotypic 
shrews, Feroculus feroculus and Solisorex pearsonii (Sumithraarachchi, 1989; Collins el al. 
(Eds.), 1991; IIED, 1992; Werner & Balasubramaniam, 1992; Dent & Goonewardene, 1993; 
Green & Gunawardena, 1993; Werner, 1993) 



References 

Collins, N.M., Sayer, J. A. and Whitmore, T.C. (Eds.). 1991. The conserx'ation atlas of 

tropical forests: Asia and the Pacific. lUCN, Gland & WCMC, Cambridge. Simon & 

Schuster, New York, pp.335. 
Dent, D.L. & Goonewardene, L.K.P.A. 1993. Resource Assessment and Land Use Planning 

in Sri Lanka: a case study. Environmental Planning Issues No. 4. 
Forest Department. ? The Knuckles Range (Dumbara Hills). Education & Extension Division 

Forest Department Sri Lanka. 
Green, M.J.B. & Gunawardena, E.R.N. 1993. Conservation evaluation of some natural 

forests in Sri Lanka. Unpubl. report. 
lUCN & Sri Lankan Forest Department. 1994. Management plan for the conservation of the 

Knuckles Forest. Unpubl. report. 
Sumithraarachchi, D.B. 1989. Sri Lankan forests: diversity and genetic resources. In: 

Tropical Forests: botanical dynamics, speciation and diversity (L.B. Holm-Nielsen, 

I.e. Nielsen & H. Balslev, eds.). Academic Press, pp. 253-258. 
Werner, W.L. & Balasubramaniam, S. 1992. Structure and dynamics of the upper montane 

rain forests of Sri Lanka. In: Tropical forests in transition: ecology of natural and 

anthropogenic disturbance processes (J.G. Goldammer, ed.). Birkhauser Verlag 

Basel/Switzerland, pp. 165-172. 



249 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



Werner, W.L. 1986. A comparison between two tropical montane ecosystems in Asia 

Pidurutalagaia (Ceylon/Sri Lanka) and Pangrango-Gede (Java). Mountain Research 
and Development 6:335-344. 

Werner, W.L. 1993. Biogeography and ecology of the upper montane rain forest of Sri 

Lanka (Ceylon). In: Tropical montane cloud forests: proceedings of an international 
symposium (L.S. Hamilton, J.O. Juvik & F.N. Scatena, eds.). East-West Center. 
Hawai'i. pp. 224-230. 

WCMC. 1990. lUCN directory of south Asian protected areas. lUCN - the World 
Conservation Union. 



250 



SRI LANKA 




75 km 











SRI LANItA: CLOUD FOREST SUMMARY 
Cloud Forest Region 


Cloud Forest Site 




Date: 27/06/97 

Protected* 
Yes/No? 


Central Highlands 


Agra Bopats 


/ 


No 



Knuckles Hountains/Durbara 



Bogawantalaua 

Conical Hill 

Hakagala 

Hakgala Peak 

Harasbedda 

Horton Plains 

Kandapola Sita Eliya 

Kikilimana 

Kirigalpota 

Hahakudugala 

Namunukula 

Nanuoya 

Ohiya 

Pattipola 

Pattipola Ambeuela 

Peak Wilderness 

Pedro 

Pidurutalagala 

Ragala 

Sri Pada/Adam's Peak 

Thangamalai 

Uelegama 

Dotulugala 

Dintianagala 

Gal tuna 

Goinbaniya 

Kalupahana 

Knuckles 

Koboneelagala 

Labulessapatana 

Lakegala 

Uamarapugala 



06°55'N/080''45'E 

I 
6°56'N/ 80°48'E 

I 

I 

I 
06°59'W/080°43'E 
06°48'N/080°45'E 
07''02'N/080°48'E 
06°56' N/081 °07'E 
06°S6<N/080<'40<E 

/ 

/ 

/ 

I 

I 
07°01'N/080°45'E 
07°01'N/080°51"E 
06°47'N/080°31"E 

/ 

I 

I 
07''23'N/080°52'E 

I 
07''28'N/080°44'E 
07°28'N/080°47'E 
7°22'N/ 80°50'E 

/ 

I 

I 

I 



No 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

Yes 

No 

No 

No 

Yes 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 

No 



Total No. of 
CF Regions: 2 



Total No. of 
CF Sites= 33 



Total No. of CF Sites with 
an eleflient of protection » 7 



* 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria 



South East Asia 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Sri Lanka 



Central Highlands 

Areas of montane cloud forest in the Central Highlands that are protected are contained in 
Hakagala Strict Nature Reserve (SNR), Horton Plains National Park (NP) and Peak 
Wilderness Sanctuary. Hakgala SNR ranges from about 1650m to 2178m with Hakgala Peak 
being the highest point. This area is noted for its endemic Monimiaceae Hortonia floribimda 
and also for a number of mammal endemics such as the purple-faced langur Presbytis senex 
and the toque macaque Macaca sinica. Horton Plains NP ranges from 1800m to 2389m and 
Kirigalpota is the highest point. The forest is dominated by the endemic Calophyllum walked 
in association with varieties of Myrtaceae and Lauraceae. A number of wild relatives of 
cultivated plants, such as pepper, guava, tobacco and cardamon are also found in the cloud 
forests of this area, along with the endemic long-clawed shrew Feroculus feroculus occurs in 
the area. The highest point in the Peak Wilderness is Sri Pada/Adam's Peak (2238m). 
Montane cloud forest occurs above 1700m in this Sanctuary and is confined to a narrow strip 
along the ridge line and slopes of Adams Peak. It is characterised by Calophyllum walkeri and 
C. trapezifolium. The continuous areas of Peak Wilderness Santuary and Horton Plains NP 
contain all 21 species of bird endemic to the country. Pidurutalagala, which is not protected, 
is the highest point in Sri Lanka and in the Central Highlands (2524m). Mossy forest covers 
the slopes from above 1500m. Other areas of forest in the Central Highlands that are thought 
to intercept fog include: Agra Bopats Proposed Reserve (PR), Bogawantalawa PR, Conical 
Hill PR, Harasbedda PR, Kandapola Sita Eliya Forest Reserve (FR), Kikilimana PR, 
Mahakudugala PR, Namunukula FR, Nanu Oya PR, Ohiya PR, Pattipola Ambewela PR, 
Pattipola PR, Pedro PR, Ragala PR, Thangamalai and Welegama PR (Werner, 1986; 
WCMC, 1990; WCMC unpubl. data). 



Knuckles Mountains/Dumbara Hills/Batadandu Kanda 

The upper montane rain forest in the Dumbara Hills, also locally referred to as cloud forest or 
moss forest (Dumbara means "covered in mist"), is rich in epiphytic orchids, ferns, mosses 
and leafy liverworts. The forest is characterised by a single storied canopy and an 
undergrowth of Strobilanthes spp., bamboos, Impatiens spp., Hedyotis spp. and Gaertnera 
spp. In addition, of the twenty-one endemic bird species of Sri Lanka, fourteen have been 
observed in the Knuckles region. The highest peaks in the Knuckles Range include Dotulugala 
(1564m). Koboneelagala (1544m), Knuckles (1852m), Gombaniya (1893m), Kalupahana 
(1618m), Wamarapugala (1560m), Lakegala (1310m), Labulessapatana (1485m), 
Dumbanagala (1631m) and Galmna (1164m). The main ridge has an elevation of about 
1515m. The area is threatened by cardamom cultivation in particular. The Knuckles Ranges 
is, however, valued as an important water catchment area (lUCN & Forest Dept., 1994). 



253 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



THAILAND 



Montane forests are said to be difficult to define and to map in Thailand, because distribution 
is apparently dependent upon locally complex climatic and topographic variations. Montane 
forests contain substantial numbers of temperate species which become more abundant to the 
north of the county. Typical genera include Castanopsis, Lithocarpus and Quercus and to the 
north the famiies Aceraceae, Lauraceae, Magnoliaceae and Rosaceae. Tropical montane cloud 
forest may occur in the north of the country (other than on Doi Inthanon) for example, in Doi 
Chiang Dao Wildlife Sanctuary and in Thung Yai Naresuan-Huai Kha Khaeng World 
Heritage Site; in Khao Soi Dao Wildlife Sanctuary, which is part of the Cardamom Mountains 
(see Cambodia); and also on Luang Mountain (1,786m) on the Isthmus of Kra (Collins et al. 
(Eds.), 1991; Davis et al. (Eds.), 1995; WCMC unpubl. data). 



References 

Collins, N.M., Sayer, J. A. and Whitmore, T.C. (Eds.). 1991. The conservation atlas of 

tropical forests: Asia and the Pacific. lUCN, Gland & WCMC, Cambridge. Simon & 

Schuster, New York, pp.335. 
Davis, S.D., Heywood, V.H. and Hamilton, A.C. (Eds.). 1995. Centres of plant diversity: 

a guide and strategy for their conservation. Vol.2 Asia, Australasia and the Pacific. 

WWF and lUCN. pp.578. 
Ewins, P.J. & Bazely, D.R. 1989. A report on wildlife conservation problems in Thailand's 

National Parks. Unpubl. 



254 



THAILAND: CLOUD FOREST SUMMARY "■*'= 27/06/97 

Protected* 
Cloud Forest Region Cloud Forest Site Yes/No? 



Doi Inthanon Doi Inthanon 18°35'M/ 98''29'E Yes 



Total No. of Total No. of Total No. of CF Sites with 

CF Regions' 1 CF Sites= 1 an element of protection = 1 

* 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria 



South East Asia 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Thailand 



Doi Inthanon 

At 2595m, Doi Inthanon is the highest mountain in Thailand and is included in the Doi 
Inthanon National Park. The highest peaks above 1850m are frequently cloud covered and 
contain upper montane forest with small gnarled trees, which are thickly covered with 
bryophytes. The fauna in this area has been severely depleted by hunting and shifting 
cultivation has converted forest on the lower slopes into fire climax grasslands (Davies et al. 
(Eds.), 1995; WCMC unpubl. data). 



257 



A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS 



VIET NAM 



Three quarters of Viet Nam consists of hills and mountains reaching up to over 3000m. Cloud 
forest sites may be contained within the two main mountain ranges in the countr\ , the Chaine 
Annamitique and the Hoang Lien Son mountain range. The latter range includes the highest 
peak in the country, Phan Si Pan (3143m), which contains deciduous tropcial montane forest 
and subtropical montane forest. The highest mountains in the country, some of which are also 
included in nature reserves, are in the Hoang Lien Son to the north, the Ngoc Linh in the 
centre and the Da Lat (Lam Vien/Langbian) Plateau to the south. These areas are said to be 
the main refuges of local endemic forms of plants and animals. Upper montane forests tend to 
be dominated by conifers, with an understorey of bamboo. Political unrest and warfare have 
resulted in extensive deforestation throughout Viet Nam. Currently, 40% of the country is 
classified as bare land (Vo Quy, 1985; WCMC, 1994; Davis et al. (Eds.), 1995; WCMC 
unpubl. data). 



References 

Davis, S.D., Heywood, V.H. and Hamilton, A.C. (Eds.). 1995. Centres of plant diversity : 

a guide and strategy for their conservation. Vol.2 Asia, Australasia and the Pacific. 
WWF and lUCN. pp.578. 

WCMC. 1994. The Socialist Republic of Viet Nam: an environmental profile. Unpubl. 

Vo Quy. 1985. Rare species and protection measures proposed for Viet Nam. In: Consen'ing 
Asia 's natural heritage: the planning and management of protected areas in the 
Indofnalayan realm (J.W. Thorsell, eds.) pp. 98-102. Proceedings of the 25th Working 
Session of lUCN's Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas. 



258 



VIET NAM: CLOUD FOREST SUMMARY 



Cloud Forest Region 



Da Lat/Lam Vien/Lang Bian Plateau 

Total No. of 
CF Regions^ 1 



Cloud Forest Site 



Protected* 
Yes/No? 



Mount Lang Bian 



11"'56'N/108°25'E 



No 



Total No. of 
CF Sites= 1 



Total No. of CF Sites with 
an element of protection = 



• 'Protected' refers to sites classified as meeting lUCN Management Category I-VI criteria 



South East Asia 



Cloud Forest Region Summaries: Viet Nam 



Da Lat/Lam Vien/Lang Bian Plateau 

The highest points on the Plateau are Bidoup (2289m) and Mount Lang Bian (2140m). 
However, most of the land on the Plateau is below 1500m. Tropical montane evergreen forest 
and subtropical montane forest occur above 1700m. Mount Lang Bian contains various 
montane forests: the principal forest types being conifer secondary forest, comprising mainly 
Pinus kesiya; forest dominated by Lithocarpus spp. and oak Quercus lanata: and elfm 
woodland comprising Ericaceae, Podocarpaceae and Rhododendron. Distinct faunal species 
and subspecies have developed on the Plateau. The montane evergreen forest above 900m 
supports seven restricted-range bird species, of which three are endemic; the grey -crowned 
crocias Crocias langbianis, the black-hooded laughing-thrush Garrulax milleti and the 
collared laughing-thrush Garrulax yersini. The forests are valued for water catchment, but are 
threatened by commercial logging and slash and bum cultivation (Davies et al. (Eds.), 1995; 
WCMC unpubl. data). 



261 



A^Pi 



fc-»>Jiii\: 1 



TROPICAL MONTTANE CLOUD FORESTS: SITE SHEET FORMAT - GUIDE 
1) SUMMARY INFORMATION 



CLOUD FOREST SITE NAME 

COUNTRY 

REGION 

SIZE 

LATITUDE 
LONGITUDE 

LOW ALTITUDE 
HIGH ALTITUDE 

RAINFALL 



TLIMPERATURE 



V 



Sm-.CIES INFORMATION FLORA 



^<r- 



FAUNA 



name of particular TMCF site 

(if none then protected area or region) 



state, province, region and approx location in 
country e.g NE, SW Argentina 

Area (ha) 

centre point co-ordinates 
(boundary information if available) 

Lower altitudinal limit (m above sea level) 
Upper altitudinal limit (m above sea level) 

mean annual(mm) 
maximum monthly average 
minimum monthly average 

mean annual (°C) 
maximum monthly average 
minimum monthly average 

Species information exists? Please circle. Y/N 

[ ] Preliminary* 

[ ] Extensive 

[ ] Comprehensive 

Please tick most appropriate 

Species information exists? Y/N 

[ ] Preliminary* 

[ ] Extensive 

[ ] Comprehensive 



* Preliminary - based on hmited field observations 
Extensive - partial surveys of the area 
Comprehensive - systematic surveys 



THREATS 



Main Threats - Please tick those with major 
relevance and add any others: 



- agricultural encroachment 

- grazing pressure 

- commercial logging 

- mining 

- hunting 

- fire/burning 

- non-wood forest products 

- tourism 

- exploitation of non-wood forest products 

- roads 

- others? 



VALUES 



Important Values - Again tick one or more from 
list below: 



watershed protection 

soil conservation 

endemism 

socio-cultural 

socio-economic 

medicinal 

biodiversity (endangered species) 

tourism / recreation 

other? 



PROTECTED AREA NAME 
SPATIAL RELATIONSHIP 



Protected Area Name (if relevant) 

Spatial relationship with PA eg. CF is included, 
includes, same, adjacent. Overlap (ha)? 



TROPICAL MONTANE CLOUD FORESTS: SITE SHEET FORMAT - BLANK 

Please refer to enclosed guide version for help where needed. 



1) 



SUMMARY INFORMATION 



CLOUD FOREST SITE NAME 

COUNTRY 

RlfilON 

S1/I-: 

LATITUDE 
L()\'GITUDE 

LOW ALTITUDE 
HKiH ALTITUDE 

RAINFALL 
TEMPERATURE 



SPECIES INFORMATION FLORA 



ha 



_m asl 
_m asl 

mm 



°C 



Species information exists? Please circle. Y/N 

[ ] Preliminary* 

[ ] Extensive 

[ ] Comprehensive 



Please tick most appropriate 

FAUNA : Species information exists? Y/N 

[ ] Preliminary* 

[ ] Extensive 

[ ] Comprehensive 



I'reliminary - based on limited field observations 
Extensive - partial surveys of the area 
Comprehensive - systematic surveys 



THREATS 



Main Threats - Please tick those with major 
relevance and add an\ others: 



- agricultural encroachment 

- grazing pressure 

- commercial logging 

- mining 

- hunting 

- fire/buming 

- tourism 

- exploitation of non-wood forest products 

- roads 



VALUES 



Important Values - Again tick one or more from 
list below: 



- watershed protection 

- soil conservation 

- endemism 

- socio-cultural 

- socio-economic 

- medicinal 

- biodiversity (endangered species) 

- tourism / recreation 



PROTECTED AREA NAME 
SPATIAL RELATIONSHIP 



2) MORE DETAILED INFORMATION (TEXT BASED) - GUIDE 



SITE DESCRIPTION 

Geographical Location 
Area 

Aititudinal limits 

Hydrology - e.g. catchment extent 
Physical features 

Climate - details of seasonality , max and min rainfall and temperature ranges, 

temporal distribution, special cloud water characteristics 



• VEGETATION AND FAUNA 

Vegetation: - description of forest structure 

- details of rare, threatened and endemic spp 

- existence of species inventory/records? if so date, and where held? 

- more detail on different plant groups 

- total species numbers for each group 

Fauna: as above, detail on birds, mammals etc. 

Ecological value - summary comments 

• LEGAL STATUS AND MANAGEMENT 

History of Legal Protection 
Management responsibility 
Land Tenure details 

• SOCIO-ECONOMICS 

Local Human populations: forest/adjacent communities (including approximate 

numbers) 

Goods and services - socio-cultural, economic, including local uses 

• THREATS TO SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT 

Particular detail on any threats 



CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT INITIATIVES 

Details of active and pending initiatives: 

eg. local NGOs, national/international NGOs, bilateral development projects 

RESEARCH STUDIES 

Details of relevant studies, current or completed 
Name of institution, list of citations 

LOCAL ADDRESSES 



REFERENCES 

To sources of information 




■♦J- 1 






llfcl'! 



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I I T™ 



WORLD CONSERVATION 
MONITORING CENTRE 



""mwiww 



ai. 



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lUCN ^ 



World Conservation Monitoring Centre 

219 Huntingdon Road 

Cambridge CBS ODL 

United Kingdom 

Telephone +44 223 2773 14 
Fax +44 223 277136 



UNEP WWF 



^ 



The World Conservation Monitoring Centre is a joint-venture between the three 
partners who developed the World Conservation Strategy and its successor Caring for 
the Earth: lUCN-The World Conservation Union, UNEP- United Nations Environment 
Programme, and WWF-World Wide Fund for Nature.